Tuesday, August 23, 2011

Islamic Debate

                                           Bismillahe Al-Ra7man Al-Ra7eem

                          Asalamon 3leykom wa Ra7matullahe Wa Barakatu




Islamic debate


So here below u will see a list of questions and answers and also i want you to kno i started this research project when:

Question from a kaffir non-believer atheist was aroused and he asked:

"so the profit muhammed, what exactly did he say and how do we know he came from god? without any form of advanced technology back then i dont see how we could now that. "

Answers are stated below with diff type if questions and methods ie. Videos of other islamic debates:

So keep reading and watching and learning at the same time as opening your heart and your eyes to the right and truth and rightous n true path (serat al mostaqeem) wa the only sa7i7 way of living is : ISLAM!!!

Al7mdullah i am a real muslim no fakeness up in heyyaa>>> if u fakr plz leave ma pagina ! Page in spanish lol

My salat all on Spot reading Qur'an and attending islamic issues and going salat al jom3ah and masjid and fasting each and evetyday of Ramadan aint missed a Sawm and making zakaat an donations an charity and also goin 3mrah soon insha'Allah next month insha'Allah

Yaay me ^_^ ماشاء الله عليچ و الحمدالله Don't want y'all to 3in me u c


First off awsome video being a (hot i might add masha'Allah very goodlooking young man) 20 yr old Felestini kid served old Christian man must see video!!! :

Masha'Allah 3leik i ♥ u and adore u!!! Wallaaah!! U deserve da best and also best place in jannah al Ferdows!!! Insha'Allaaah!!!

♥ U Sami Zaatari mwaaaach U da BESTEST! u da BOMB! u da BOMBEST!! u Da Bomb Explosive muuuuawwch!!!

hey old guy u'v just been served lol yaaaaaaaay masha'Allah 3leich yaaa Sami!!

So2al from a non-believer Kaffir: Was Mu7ammad a Prophet of God?

Jawab video below 162 min

info about video:

Was Muhammad (pbuh) a true prophet of God?

Was he a mercy for humanity?

Did Muhammad (pbuh) author the Qur'an?

The Easter Debates:
Islam vs Christianity

A truly remarkable series of five debates held at Old Dominion University and the Central Baptist Church in Ghent, Norfolk, Virginia, USA

Day 2: Was Muhammad a Prophet of God?

For Muslims, the question of Muhammad's true prophethood is indisputable.

They firmly believe that he is a true prophet and Messenger of God, through whom God's divine revelations throughout history were culminated and perfected, thus forming the universal divine message to mankind.

For critics of Islam, generally, it is Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), rather than God, who is the founder of Islam, the author of its teachings, and the composer of its holy book, the Qur'an.

A sincere and "neutral" researcher examine both claims and arrive at his own conclusions.

Representing the Muslim perspective was Sami Zaatari: Sami has written hundreds of articles defending Islam , He runs the website www.muslim-responses.com

He is currently studying literature in London and is working on a book on Jesus' crucifixion.

Representing the Christian side was Mr. David Wood: David is a former atheist, he converted to Christianity after examining the evidence for Gods existence and the historical evidence for Jesus resurrection

He is a Teaching Fellow at Fordham University, where he teaches Philosophical Ethics

He holds degrees in Biology and Philosophy and is coauthor of the book Who Was Jesus? Who Was Muhammad? Two Debates

He runs the website www.AnsweringMuslims.com

The Topic of Debate: Was Muhammad a Prophet of God?

Sami Zaatari

(www.Youtube.com/SamiZaatari)

vs.

David Wood

(Old Dominion University, Saturday March 22nd 2008)

For further information on upcoming or previous debates click here

http://www.muslim-responses.com/debates

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eq6Mdu8idic&feature=youtube_gdata_player


Know Prophet Muhammad from A-Z:

The following is based on books, manuscripts, texts and actual eyewitness accounts, too numerous to mention herein, preserved in original form throughout the centuries by both Muslims and non-Muslims.
Many people today are discussing Prophet Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention. Who was he exactly? What did he teach? Why was he loved so much by some and hated so much by others? Did he live up to his claims? Was he a holy man? Was he a prophet of God? What is the truth about this man? You be the judge.
Here are the facts as narrated by thousands of people, many of whom knew him personally.

*He was born to a noble tribe to the lineage of the leaders of Makkah.
*His name comes from the Arabic root "hamd" and literally means "praised one." People at his time and until this very moment, praise him many times per day, may Allah exalt his mention.
*He never fell into the common practice of his tribesmen to worship statues, idols or man-made "gods."
*He believed that God was truly One God, and as such, He was to be worshipped alone, without any other "gods" beside Him.
*He held the Name of God in the highest of reverence and never took God's Name in vain or for any vain glorious purpose.
*He despised false worship and all of the complexities and degradation to which it leads.
*He adhered to the Commandments of Almighty God, just as prophets of old had done in the past.
*He never committed adultery, and he forbade others from doing it.
*He forbade usury and interest on money lending, as Jesus, may Allah exalt his mention, had done centuries before him
*He never gambled and did not allow it.
*He never drank alcohol or strong drink; even though it was a very normal thing for people of his time and place.
*He did not engage in gossip and used to turn away from hearing anything related to it.
*He fasted for days at a time to be closer to Almighty God and away from the narrowness of worldly attractions.
*He taught that Jesus, may Allah exalt his mention, was the immaculate conception and miracle birth of Mary, and that she was among the best creation of Almighty God.
*He insisted even to the Jews of Medina, that Jesus, may Allah exalt his mention, was the Messiah, the Christ, the one predicted to come in their Torah (Old Testament).
*He said Jesus, may Allah exalt his mention, did many miracles by the permission of Almighty God, curing the lepers, restoring sight to the blind and even bringing a dead man back to life.
*He stated clearly that Jesus, may Allah exalt his mention, was not dead, rather Almighty God had raised him up.
*He foretold that Jesus, may Allah exalt his mention, is going to return again in the Last Days to lead the true believers in a victory over the evil and unrighteous people, and he will destroy the Anti-Christ.
*He commanded the payment of charity to the poor and he was the defender and protector of widows, orphans and the wayfarers.
*He ordered people to unite with their families and honor the ties of kinship and he restored relationships between family members.
*He required his followers to engage only in lawful marriage relationships with women, and forbade sex outside of Almighty God's Ordinance.
*He insisted on giving women their proper rights, dowries, inheritance and property.
*His patience and humble attitude were exemplary and all who knew him had to admit to these virtues.
A. He never lied, never broke a trust never bore false witness, and he was famous with all the tribes in Makkah and was known as: "The Truthful" (Al-Ameen).
B. He never once engaged in sex outside of marriage, nor did he ever approve of it, even though it was very common at the time.
C. His only relationships with women were in legitimate, contractual marriages with proper witnesses according to law.
D. His relationship to Ayesha was only that of marriage. Their relationship is described in every detail by Ayesha herself in the most loving and respectful manner as a match truly made in heaven. Ayesha is considered as one of the highest scholars of Islam and lived out her entire life only having been married to Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention. She never desired any other man, nor did she ever utter a single negative statement against Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention.
E. He forbade any killing until the orders came from Allah. Even then the limits were clearly spelled out and only those engaged in active combat against the Muslims or Islam were to be fought in combat. And even then, only according to very strict rules from Allah.
F. Killing any innocent life was forbidden.
G. There was no genocide of Jews. He offered mutual protection and forgiveness to the Jews even after they broke their covenants with him many times. They were not attacked until it was clearly proven they were traitors during time of war and tried to bring down the prophet, may Allah exalt his mention, and the Muslims at any cost. Retaliation was only to those Jews who had turned traitor and not others.
H. Slaves were common in those days for all nations and tribes. It was Islam that encouraged freeing of the slaves and the great reward from Allah for those who did so. Prophet, may Allah exalt his mention, gave the example of this by freeing slaves and encouraging all of his followers to do the same. Examples include his own servant (who was actually considered like a son to him) Zaid ibn Al Haritha and Bilal the slave who was bought by Abu Bakr only for the purpose of freeing him.
I. While there were many attempts of assassination made on Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, (most famous was the night that Ali took his place in bed while he and Abu Bakr escaped to Madinah), he did not allow his companions to slaughter any of those who had been involved in these attempts. Proof for this is when they entered Makkah triumphantly and his first words were to command his followers not to harm such and such tribes and so and so families. This was one of the most famous of his acts of forgiveness and humbleness.
J. Military combat was forbidden for the first thirteen years of prophethood. The desert Arabs did not need anyone to tell them how to fight or do combat. They were experts in this area and held feuds amongst tribes that lasted for decades. It was not until the proper method of warfare was instituted by Allah in the Quran, with proper rights and limitations according His Commandments, that any retaliation or combat was sanctioned. Orders from Allah made it clear who was to be attacked, how and when and to what extent fighting could take place.
K. Destruction of infrastructures is absolutely forbidden except when it is ordained by Allah in certain instances and then only according to His Commands.
L. Cursing and invoking evil actually came to the prophet, may Allah exalt his mention, from his enemies, while he would be praying for their guidance. Classic example is that of his journey to At-Taif where the leaders would not even hear him out nor offer so much as the normal courtesy called for and instead they set the children of the street against him, throwing rocks and stones at him until his body was bleeding so much, blood filled his sandals. He was offered revenge by the angel Gabriel, if he would give the command, Allah would cause the surrounding mountains to fall down upon them destroying them all. Instead of cursing them or asking for their destruction, he prayed for them to be guided to worship their Lord alone, without any partners.
M. Prophet Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, claimed every person who is born is born in a state of ISLAM (submission to God), as a Muslim (MU-Islam means; "one who does ISLAM" i.e.; submits to God's Will and obeys His Commandments). Then as they grow older they begin to distort their faith according to the influence of the prevailing society and their own prejudices.
N. Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, taught his followers to believe in the God of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Moses, David, Solomon and Jesus, peace be upon them all, and to believe in them as true prophets, messengers and slaves of Almighty Allah. He insisted on ranking all the prophets up at the highest level without any distinction between them.
O. He also taught the Torah (Old Testament), Zaboor (Psalms) and Injeel (Gospel or New Testament) were originally from the very same source as the Quran, from Allah.
P. He prophesied and foretold of events to come and they happened as he had said. He even predicted something from the past that would come true in the future, and it has. The Quran states pharaoh was drowned in the Red Sea while chasing after Moses and Allah said He would preserve Pharaoh as a sign for the future. Dr. Maurice Bucaille in his book, "Bible, Quran and Science" makes it clear this has happened and the very person of Pharaoh has been discovered in Egypt and is now on display for all to see. This event took place thousands of years before Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, and it came true in the last few decades, many centuries after his death.
Q. There has been more written about the prophet Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, than any other person on earth. He has been praised very high even by famous non-Muslims for centuries. One of the first examples we quote from is from the Encyclopedia Britannica, as it confirms (regarding Muhammad)� ". . . a mass of detail in the early sources shows that he was an honest and upright man who had gained the respect and loyalty of others who were likewise honest and upright men." (Vol. 12)
R. Another impressive tribute to Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention is in the very well written work of Michael H. Hart, "The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History." He states that the most influential person in all history was Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, with Jesus second. Examine his actual words:
"My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world's most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular level."
S. While we are reviewing statements from famous non-Muslims about Prophet Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, consider this: "Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas, of a cult without images; the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire, that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?" Lamartine, HISTOIRE DE LA TURQUIE, Paris, 1854, Vol. II, pp. 276-277.
T. George Bernard Shaw, a famous writer and non-Muslim says: "He must be called the Savior of Humanity. I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it much needed peace and happiness." (The Genuine Islam, Singapore, Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936)
U. K.S. Ramakrishna Rao, an Indian (Hindu) professor of Philosophy, in his booklet "Muhammad the Prophet of Islam" calls him the "perfect model for human life." Professor Ramakrishna Rao explains his point by saying: "The personality of Muhammad, it is most difficult to get into the whole truth of it. Only a glimpse of it I can catch. What a dramatic succession of picturesque scenes. There is Muhammad the Prophet. There is Muhammad the Warrior; Muhammad the Businessman; Muhammad the Statesman; Muhammad the Orator; Muhammad the Reformer; Muhammad the Refuge of Orphans; Muhammad the Protector of Slaves; Muhammad the Emancipator of Women; Muhammad the Judge; Muhammad the Saint. All in all these magnificent roles, in all these departments of human activities, he is alike a hero."
v. Mahatma Gandhi, speaking on the character of Muhammad, May Allah exalt his mention, says in 'YOUNG INDIA': "I wanted to know the best of one who holds today undisputed sway over the hearts of millions of mankind... I became more than convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet, the scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission. These and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every obstacle. When I closed the 2nd volume (of the Prophet's biography), I was sorry there was not more for me to read of the great life."
W. Thomas Carlyle in his 'Heroes and Hero Worship', was simply amazed as to: "How one man single handedly, could weld warring tribes and wandering Bedouins into a most powerful and civilized nation in less than two decades."
X. Diwan Chand Sharma wrote in "The Prophets of the East": "Muhammad was the soul of kindness, and his influence was felt and never forgotten by those around him" (D.C. Sharma, The Prophets of the East, Calcutta, 1935, pp. 12)
Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, was nothing more or less than a human being, but he was a man with a noble mission, which was to unite humanity on the worship of ONE and ONLY ONE GOD and to teach them the way to honest and upright living based on the commands of God. He always described himself as, 'A Slave and Messenger of God' and so indeed every action of his proclaimed to be.
Y. Speaking on the aspect of equality before God in Islam, the famous poetess of India, Sarojini Naidu says: "It was the first religion that preached and practiced democracy; for, in the mosque, when the call for prayer is sounded and worshippers are gathered together, the democracy of Islam is embodied five times a day when the peasant and king kneel side by side and proclaim: 'God Alone is Great'... I have been struck over and over again by this indivisible unity of Islam that makes man instinctively a brother." (S. Naidu, Ideals of Islam, vide Speeches & Writings, Madras, 1918, p. 169)
Z. In the words of Professor Hurgronje: "The league of nations founded by the prophet of Islam put the principle of international unity and human brotherhood on such universal foundations as to show candle to other nations." He continues, "the fact is that no nation of the world can show a parallel to what Islam has done towards the realization of the idea of the League of Nations."
Z-2. Edward Gibbon and Simon Ockley, on the profession of ISLAM, writes in "History of the Saracen Empires": "I BELIEVE IN ONE GOD, AND MAHOMET, AN APOSTLE OF GOD' is the simple and invariable profession of Islam. The intellectual image of the Deity has never been degraded by any visible idol; the honor of the Prophet has never transgressed the measure of human virtues; and his living precepts have restrained the gratitude of his disciples within the bounds of reason and religion." (History of the Saracen Empires, London, 1870, p. 54)
Z-3. Wolfgang Goethe, perhaps the greatest European poet ever, wrote about Prophet Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention. He said: "He is a prophet and not a poet and therefore his Koran is to be seen as Divine Law and not as a book of a human being, made for education or entertainment." (Noten und Abhandlungen zum Weststlichen Dvan, WA I, 7, 32)
People do not hesitate to raise to divinity and even make 'gods' out of other individuals whose lives and missions have been lost in legend. Historically speaking, none of these legends achieved even a fraction of what Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, accomplished. And all his striving was for the sole purpose of uniting mankind for the worship of One God on the codes of moral excellence. Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention, or his followers never at any time claimed that he was a son of God or the God-incarnate or a man with divinity � but he always was and is even today considered as only a Messenger chosen by God.
Today after a lapse of fourteen centuries, the life and teachings of Muhammad, may Allah exalt his mention; have survived without the slightest loss, alteration or interpolation. They offer the same undying hope for treating mankind's many ills, which they did when he was alive. This is not a claim of Muhammad�s, may Allah exalt his mention, followers, but the inescapable conclusion forced upon by a critical and unbiased history.
Now it is up to you.
You are a rational thinking, concerned human being. As such, you should already be asking
"Could these extraordinary, revolutionary and amazing statements, all about this one man, really be true?
What if this is all true?

Source:
http://www.knowtheprophet.com/his-life/a-z.htm


In order to know the Prophet Muhammad, can you outline the most striking features of his personality as a Messenger of God?

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate

There are three great and universal things that make known to us our Lord. One is the book of the universe, about whose testimony we have explained in some parts of our works. The second is the Seal of the Prophets, upon him be peace and blessings, who constitutes the supreme sign in the book of the universe. The third is the glorious Qur’an. Now we must recognize and listen to the Seal of the Prophets, who is the second and articulate proof and announcer of God with all His names and Attributes, His existence and Unity.

Look at the universal personality of that proof: The face of the earth is his mosque, Makka, his mihrab (niche), and Madina, his pulpit. Our Prophet, upon him be peace, this illustrious proof, is the leader to all the believers, preacher to all mankind, the chief of all the prophets, lord of all the saints, the leader in the remembrance of God of a circle comprising all the prophets and saints. With all the prophets as its roots and saints as its ever-fresh fruits, he is a radiant tree; all the prophets with the support of their miracles, and all the saints depending on their wonders, confirm all his claims and corroborate them. For, he declares and claims: There is no deity but God; and all those illustrious reciters of God’s Names lined up in the past and future repeat the same words in unison, as if to say, ‘You speak the truth, and what you say is right!’ What illusion has the power to dispute such an argument which is thus confirmed by such countless endorsements?
Just as this radiant proof of Divine Unity is affirmed by the consensus and unanimity of those prophets ad saints, so, too, hundreds of signs in the revealed Scriptures, like the Torah and the Gospels, the thousands of indications of his Prophethood that appeared prior to his mission, the well-known reports of the voices from the Unseen, the unanimous testimony of soothsayers, the indications of thousands of miracles, like the splitting of the moon, and the justice and truth of his Shari‘a (the Law) all confirm and corroborate him. Similarly, the laudable virtues he has to the utmost degree of perfection; his complete confidence in his mission and the most excellent qualities he has in relation to its fulfillment, and his extraordinary fear of God, worship, serenity, and firmness, which demonstrate the strength of his belief, and his total certainty and complete steadfastness, all show as clearly as the sun how utterly truthful he is in his claim.
If you wish, come! Let us go to the Arabian peninsula in the Age of Bliss, and in our imaginations, visit him while performing his mission. Look! We see a person distinguished by the excellence of his character and beauty of his form. In his hand is a miraculous book, and on his tongue, a truthful discourse; he is delivering an eternal sermon to all mankind, to all jinn and angels, indeed to all beings. He solves and expounds the mystery of creation of the world; he discovers and solves the intricate talisman which is the mystery of the universe; and he provides convincing and satisfying answers to the great and important questions that are asked of all beings and have always bewildered and occupied minds: Who are you, and what is the purpose of your life? Where have you come from? Were are you going now? What is your final destination?
Behold! He spreads such a light of truth that, if you look at the universe without the light of his guidance, you see it as a place of mourning, and beings as alien to one another, or even hostile, and inanimate beings as ghastly corpses and living creatures as orphans weeping under the blows of death and separation. Now look! Through the light he spreads, that place of universal mourning has been transformed into a place of invocation where God’s Names and praises are recited in joy and ecstasy. Those alien, hostile beings have become friends and brothers. The dumb, inanimate creatures have each taken on the form of familiar, obedient officials and docile servants. The weeping, complaining orphans are observed to be either reciting God’s Names and praises or offering thanks for being discharged from their duties.
Again, through this light, the motions and variations observed in the universe, and also the changes and transformations are no longer regarded as meaningless and futile playthings of chance, but have appeared in their true form and function: each being a missive of the Master of the universe, a page inscribed with the signs of creation, a mirror reflecting God’s Names, and the world itself, a book of the wisdom of the Besought-of-All. While, without this light, man’s boundless weakness and helplessness, poverty and neediness cause him to fall lower than the animals, and his intellect, by conveying to him grief, sorrow and anxiety, makes him more wretched, when he is illumined with this light, he rises above all animals and all creatures. Once his intellect is illumined, his poverty and helplessness become means of infinite wealth and power through dependence on God, and himself, through entreaty, ascends to the level of being a beloved monarch and, through his lamenting, a petted vicegerent of the earth. That is to say, were it not for this light, the universe and man, and all things, would be reduced to nothingness. Indeed, certainly such a person is necessary in such a wondrous universe; otherwise the universe, all the worlds need not exist.
This being announces and brings the good tidings of eternal happiness; he is the unveiler and proclaimer of God’s infinite mercy, the observer and herald of the beauties of the realm of the Lord’s sovereignty, and the discloser and displayer of the treasures of Divine Names. If you observe him as a devoted worshipper of God, you will see him to be a model of love, an embodiment of mercy, the pride of mankind, and the most illustrious fruit of the tree of creation. If you observe him as a Messenger, you will then see him to be a proof of God, a lamp of truth, a sun of guidance, and the means of happiness. Look! His light has lit up from East to West like dazzling lightning, and half of the globe and one fifth of mankind have accepted the gift of his guidance and kept and preserved it like their life. So why is it that our evil-commanding souls and satans should not accept, with all its degrees, the essence of his mission, that is, there is no deity but God.
Now, consider how, instantly eradicating their evil and savage customs and immoral qualities to which they were so fanatically attached, he equipped and adorned the desperate, wild and unyielding peoples of that large peninsula with all the praiseworthy virtues, and made them teachers of all the world and masters, especially, to the civilized nations. Behold, it was not an outward domination; rather he conquered and subjugated their minds, spirits, hearts, and souls. He became the beloved of hearts, the teacher of minds, the trainer of souls, and the ruler of spirits.
You know that a small habit like cigarette smoking among a small community can be removed permanently only by a powerful ruler and with great effort. But see! This being removed numerous ingrained habits from large obsessed communities with little outward power and little effort within a very short period of time, and in their place implanted and inculcated exalted qualities in such a way that they became inherent in their being. Many more such miraculous accomplishments are to his credit. To those who refuse to see the testimony of the blessed age of the Prophet, upon him be peace, we present as a challenge the Arabian peninsula with its present ‘civilized’ state. Let them go there with hundreds of philosophers, sociologists and psychologists, and strive for a hundred years, I wonder whether they would be able to achieve in that period a hundredth part of what the Prophet achieved in a year.
You also know that even an insignificant man of small standing in a small group of people in a disputed matter of little importance cannot tell a small but shameful lie openly and comfortably without displaying such anxiety and uneasiness as will make his enemies aware of his deception. Now consider this being: Although he is under the burden of a tremendous task in the name of the Messengership of God, and in need of great security against great hostility, can any contradiction at all be found in the words he fearlessly uttered in a large community concerning a great cause, with great ease and freedom, without hesitation or anxiety, with pure sincerity, great seriousness, and in an intense, elevated manner that irritated his enemies? Is it at all possible that any deception should have been involved? God forbid! What he speaks is nothing but revelation revealed to him. The truth cannot be deceptive, and one who sees the truth is not deceived. His path, which is pure truth, is free of deception. How could a fancy appear to his truth-seeing eyes to be the truth, and deceive him?
Now, see! What curiosity-arousing, attractive, necessary, and awesome truths he shows and matters he proves!

You know that what incites man most is curiosity. Suppose that someone said to you: ‘If you give half of your property, someone will come from the Mars and Jupiter to tell you about them. He will also tell you correctly about your future and exactly what will happen to you.’ If you have any curiosity at all, you would pay up. Whereas that being tells of such a King that in His realm the moon flies round a moth like a fly, and the moth, which is the earth, flutters round a lamp, and the lamp, the sun, is merely one of the thousands of lamps in one guest-house out of thousands belonging to that King. Also, he speaks truly of so wondrous a world and predicts such a revolution that if the earth was a bomb and exploded it would not be at all strange. Listen to the suras he recites, which begin with the verses,

When the sun is folded up. (81:1)
When the sky is cleft asunder. (82:1)
(The day) of Noise and Clamor. (101:1)

Again, he speaks truly of such a future that the future in this world is, in relation to it, like a trifling mirage. He also informs us most solemnly of such happiness that all worldly happiness is like a flash of lightning in comparison to an eternal sun.
For sure, such wonders await us under the apparent veil of the universe, which is thus strange and perplexing. What we need then is a wonderful and miracle-working being to communicate and explain the wonders to us. It is apparent from the conduct of that being that he has seen them, and he sees them, and he tells us what he sees. He also teaches us most soundly what the One God of those heavens and the earth, Who nourishes us with His bounties, wants of us, and in what things His pleasure lies. While we should put everything else aside and run to and heed this being who instructs us in many more necessary and curiosity-arousing things like these, how is it that most people are so deaf and blind, mad even, that they fail to see this truth, they do not hear and understand it?
As well as being an articulate proof and truthful evidence of the Oneness of the Creator of all beings, this being is a decisive proof and clear evidence of the resurrection of the dead and eternal happiness. Such as he is the cause for gaining eternal happiness through his guidance, so, too, through his prayers and supplications, he is the cause of its existence, the means of its creation.

See! In such a ‘supreme prayer’ (salat) is this being making his petition (du‘a) that it is as if the whole Arabian peninsula, even the whole earth performs the prayer through his sublime presence and makes their petitions. Amid so vast a congregation is he entreating that it is as if all the illustrious people of perfection from the time of Adam until our age and until the end of time, are following him and saying Amen to his supplications. On behalf of so universal a need is he imploring that, not only the inhabitants of the earth, but also those of the heavens, and all beings, join in his prayer, declaring, ‘Yes, O Master! Grant that to us! We too desire it!’ He supplicates so needily, so sorrowfully, in such a loving, longing, and entreating fashion that he brings the whole universe to tears, making all of it to join in his prayer.

And see! He prays for such a goal and purpose that it elevates man and the world, even all the creation from the lowest of the low, from humiliation, worthlessness, and uselessness to the highest of the high, that is to having value, permanence and sublime duties. In a manner so elevated and help-seeking, so sweet and mercy-imploring does he make his supplication and present his petition that it is as if he made all beings and the heavens and the Divine Throne of Grace hear, and bringing them to ecstasy, he causes them to exclaim, Amen, O God, Amen! He begs his needs from so Powerful a Being, All-Hearing and All-Generous, from so All-Knowing a Being, All-Seeing and All-Merciful, that He sees the most secret need of the most hidden living being, and hears its entreaties, accepts them, and has mercy on that being. He provides its need, even though this being asks for it through the tongue of its particular disposition, and He gives it in so wise, seeing, and compassionate a form that it leaves no doubt that this provision and arrangement pertains only to an All-Hearing and All-Seeing One, One Most Generous and Most Merciful.

What does he want, this pride of mankind, this unique being and glory of all beings, who, standing on the earth with all the eminent personalities of mankind behind him, and with hands upraised, is praying so sincerely? Listen! He is seeking eternal happiness. He is praying for eternal life, and to meet with God. He wants Paradise. He wants all these through all the Sacred Divine Names, which display their beauty and operations in the mirrors of beings. Even, were it not for the innumerable causes such as Mercy, Grace, Wisdom, and Justice, for the fulfillment of that request, a single one of that being’s prayers would have sufficed for the building of Paradise, which is as easy for Divine Power to do as the creation of spring. Just as his Messengership was the cause for the opening of this place of trial, so, too, his worship and servitude to God is the cause for the opening of the next world. I wonder how the perfect order observed in the universe, which causes the wise and reflective to say, ‘It is not possible for there to be a new universe more original and wonderful than the existing one’, as well as the flawless beauty of art contained in His Mercy, and the matchless beauty of His Mastership, can be at all consonant with ugliness, mercilessness and disorder, or how He could refuse the most important and most necessary desires, while satisfying the most insignificant wishes. God forbid! A hundred thousand times, God forbid!

So, my imaginary friend, that is enough for the time being, we must now return. For even we stayed for a hundred years in that age in that peninsula, we would not be able to comprehend fully even a hundredth part of that being’s marvelous and remarkable acts, and still we would never tire of observing him.

Now, come! We shall look at each century during our return journey. See, how each has bloomed fully through the flow of light it has received from that Sun of Guidance, and yielded thousands of illustrious fruits like Abu Hanife, Shafi‘i, Bayazid al-Bistami, ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, Shah Naqshband, Imam Ghazali, and Imam Rabbani.

Postponing the details of our observations to some later moment, we should invoke blessings on that worker of miracles and bringer of guidance, which refer to some of his certain miracles:

Upon him who was sent the Wise Criterion of Truth (i.e., the Qur’an) by the All-Compassionate and All-Merciful One, from the Mighty Throne–our master Muhammad–be peace and blessings thousands and thousands of times, to the number of the good deeds of his community; upon him whose Messengership was foretold by the Torah, the Gospels and the Psalms, whose Prophethood was predicted by wondrous signs that appeared prior to his Prophethood, by the voices of jinn, saints of mankind, and soothsayers, and at whose gesture the moon split–our master Muhammad–be peace and blessings thousands and thousands of times, to the number of the breaths of his community; upon him at whose beckoning came the trees, by whose prayer rain fell swiftly, whom the cloud shaded from the heat, with a dish of whose food hundreds of men were satisfied, from whose fingers water three times flowed out like the Spring of Kawthar, and to whom God made speak the lizard, the gazelle, the wolf, the camel, the mountain, the rock, the pole, and the clod of earth, the one who made the Ascension (Mi’raj) and ‘whose eye did not waver’–our master and intercessor Muhammad–upon him be peace and blessings thousands and thousands of times, to the number of the letters (of the Qur’an) formed in the words that are represented with the permission of the All-Compassionate in the mirrors of the airwaves at the reciting of all the words of the Qur’an by all reciters from the beginning of revelation until the end of time. Forgive us and have mercy upon us, O God, for the sake of each of those blessings. Amen.
The Wise Qur’an, which is the treasury of miracles and itself a supreme miracle, proves the Prophethood of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, together with the Oneness of God so decisively that it leaves no need for further proof. We will now give its definition and refer to one or two flashes of its miraculousness which have been made an object of criticism.

The Wise Qur’an, which makes our Master known to us, is an eternal translator of the great Book of the Universe; the discloser of the treasures of the Divine Names hidden in the pages of the earth and the heavens; the key to the truths which lie beneath the lines of events; the treasury of the favors of the All-Compassionate and the eternal addresses coming forth from the world of the Unseen beyond the veil of this visible world; the sun of the spiritual and intellectual world of Islam and its foundation and plan, and the map of the worlds of the Hereafter; the expounder, the lucid interpreter, articulate proof and clear translator of the Divine Essence, attributes and acts; the educator and trainer of the world of humanity and its guide, leader, and true wisdom: it is both a book of wisdom and law, and a book of prayer and worship, and a book of command and summons, and a book of invocation and knowledge of God–it is a book containing books for all the spiritual needs of mankind, and it is like a sacred library offering books from which all the saints and the eminently truthful, and all the purified and discerning scholars of different temperament have derived their ways peculiar to each.

Consider the flash of miraculousness in its reiterations, which are imagined to be a fault: since the Qur’an is both a book of invocation and prayer and a book of summons, reiteration is desirable, and even most necessary and a beautiful instance of eloquence, contrary to what the mistaken suppose. For the invocation of God requires reiteration to impress and enlighten the hearts. Prayer, through repetition, itself acquires strength and gives strength to, and becomes ingrained in, hearts. Commands and summons need restatement to be confirmed and enforced. Moreover, everyone is not capable of reading the whole of the Qur’an any time he wants, but usually is able to read one sura (chapter). For this reason, the most important purposes of the Qur’an are reiterated in most of the longer suras, each of which thereby being like a small Qur’an. Certain of its purposes and themes like Divine Unity, the resurrection of the dead, and the story of Moses are repeated so that no one should be deprived of the benefits thereof. Furthermore, as bodily tastes and needs vary, so do spiritual tastes and needs. Man is in need of some at every breath; as the body needs air, the spirit needs the particle Hu-Huwa (He-God). Of some he is in need every hour, like Bismillah (In the Name of God). And so on. The reiteration of verses therefore arises from the recurrence of needs. The Qur’an reiterates in order to point out those needs, make them deeply felt, and to awaken man to their satisfaction.

Also, the Qur’an is a founder: it is the basis of a manifest religion, and the foundation of the world of Islam. It came to change the social life of mankind and to answer the recurring questions of different social classes. Repetition is therefore necessary for a founder to affirm, and reiteration in order to emphasize. A new establishment requires confirmation and strengthening, and therefore repetition.

Again, the Qur’an speaks of such important matters and subtle truths that reiteration is necessary in different contexts in order to impress them on people’s minds and hearts in their different aspects. In any case, the repetitions are merely apparent. In reality, each word has manifold meanings, numerous benefits, and many aspects and levels. In each place the words or verses occur in a different way, in a different context, for a different meaning, purpose and benefit.

The Qur’an mentions certain cosmological matters in a concise, allusive way. This too cannot be an object of criticism, and is not a fault, as some atheists imagine; rather it is another flash of its miraculousness, for the Qur’an aims for the guidance of man.

Question
Why does the Wise Qur’an not speak of beings in the same way as science and materialistic or naturalistic philosophy? It mentions some matters very briefly, and some others it seems to speak of in a simple and superficial way that is easy for the common people to understand and does not wary their minds.

Answer: Scientism and materialistic philosophy have strayed from the path of truth. As for the Qur’an, it is not a book of science that it should speak of the cosmological matters elaborately: its purpose in mentioning certain facts of creation is rather to make known the Divine Essence, Attributes and Names, by explaining the meaning of the Book of the Universe, to make known its Creator. Therefore, it considers the creation not for its own sake, but for the sake of knowledge of its Creator. In addition, science, besides considering the creation only for its own sake, addresses particularly those specialized in it. The Qur’an, however, addresses the whole of mankind, and since it uses creation as evidence and proof to guide mankind, and the majority of mankind are common people, the evidence should be manifest and obvious in order to be understood by the common people easily, and guidance requires that things of little importance should be touched on only and the subtle points be made understandable by means of parables. In order not to mislead people into errors, it should not change things which in their view are obvious in a way which will be of no use or may even be harmful to them.

For example, the Qur’an speaks of the sun as a moving lamp because it does not mention the sun for its own sake, but because the sun is the ‘mainstay’ of the order and the center of the system in the universe, and order and system are two means of obtaining the knowledge of the Creator. When the Qur’an says, And the sun runs its course, it suggests the well-ordered disposition of Divine Power in the revolutions of winter and summer, and day and night, and therefore implies the majesty of the Maker. Thus, whatever the reality of this ‘running’ is, it does not harm the intended meaning, which is the observed order woven into the structure of the universe.

The Qur’an also says: And He made the sun as a lamp. By depicting the sun as ‘a lamp’, the Qur’an calls to mind that the world is like a palace, the contents of which are the decorations, provisions and other necessities prepared for man and for other living creatures, with the sun like a lamp to illuminate it, and therefore it implies the mercy and bounty of the Creator.

Now consider how science and materialistic philosophy deal with the sun: The sun is an enormous mass of burning gases. It causes the planets which have been flung off from it to revolve around it. It is of such and such size, and it is of such and such qualities. It gives to the spirit no perfection of knowledge apart from a terrible dread and bewilderment. It does not approach the matter as the Qur’an does. From this comparison, you can judge the value of the merely scientific and philosophical way of thinking, the former being outwardly splendid but inwardly hollow. So do not be taken in by the outward worth of scientific descriptions and so become disrespectful towards the most miraculous style of the Qur’an!
O God! Make of the Qur’an a cure from all sickness for us; a companion to us in life and after death; a friend in the world, a confidant in the grave, an intercessor on the Day of Judgment, a light on the (Bridge of) Sirat, a veil and a screen from Hellfire, a friend in Paradise, and a guide and a leader to all good deeds, by Your grace, munificence, beneficence, and mercy, O Most Generous of the generous and Most Merciful of the merciful! Amen.
O God! Bestow blessings and peace on him to whom You sent the Wise Qur’an, the Criterion of Truth and Falsehood, and on all members of his family and all of his companions! Amen!

In what ways especially does the mission of the prophet Muhammad testify to the existence and Unity of God, which is the basis of his message?

Someone has set out an intellectual journey through the world to find and know the Creator of the universe. After traveling in the realms of kinds of creatures, he said to himself: ‘I am seeking the Creator and Owner of this universe amidst these creatures. I should therefore before all else visit Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, and seek from him the answer to my quest.’ He enters by imagination the blessed age of the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, and sees that that era really was an era of happiness for mankind by virtue of that being, who, as confirmed even by his enemies, is the most blessed of the whole creation, the greatest and the most accomplished commander, and the most celebrated ruler among them, the most exalted in speech and the most brilliant in intellect, and who has enlightened fourteen centuries with his virtues and with his Qur’an.
The traveler, after his investigation, realizes how that being had turned, by means of the light he brought, a primitive and illiterate people into the masters and teachers of the world within a very short period, and found numerous decisive proofs in his character and mission of the existence and Oneness of the Creator. Out of these proofs, we will briefly point out only nine of the most general:
All laudable virtues and excellent characteristics, as affirmed even by his enemies, were to be found in that being. Besides, hundreds of miracles were made manifest at his hands. For example, he satisfied the thirst of an army with water flowing from his fingers; the moon split with a gesture of his figure, as explicitly mentioned in the verse of the Qur’an, And the moon split; and, again as the Qur’an points out in its verse, It was not you who threw when you threw, but God threw, he caused a great multitude to flee with a handful of earth that he cast toward them. The traveler, after learning about all these facts, or even witnessing them, says to himself: ‘A being who, in addition to all his good moral qualities and perfections, has such manifest miracles to demonstrate, must certainly be the most truthful in speech of all beings. It is inconceivable that he would lower himself to resort to lies and trickery, which are the vices of the vile.’
That being holds in his hand the decree of the Owner of the universe. This decree, the Glorious Qur’an, which has been accepted and affirmed in every century by more than three hundred million people, is miraculous in seven different ways and has forty aspects of miraculousness. The traveler thinks: ‘One who is the translator, expounder and proclaimer of such a Decree of pure truth could never tell a lie, which would mean a violation of the Decree and treachery towards its Owner.’
That being brought into history such a Law, a religion, a code of worship, a way of prayer, a message, and faith that the like of them has never existed, nor will or could exist. For the Law brought by that unlettered being is matchless in that it has administered one fifth of mankind for fourteen centuries, in a just and precise manner through its rules and injunctions. The religion of Islam, which originated in and is represented by the sayings, precepts and example of that unlettered being, is also peerless, for in each century, it has been for at least three hundred million people a guide and a competent authority or source for whatever matter is referred to it. It has also trained their minds, illumined and purified their hearts, trained and refined their souls, and perfected their spirits.
Also, that being is the foremost in practicing all the forms of worship prescribed by his religion and the most God-fearing of people. He observed the duties of worship with the utmost care and attention down to their minutest details even in most perilous circumstances of his life which passed in constant struggle and activity. He never imitated anyone in his worship and combined in a perfect fashion the beginning and the end of spiritual evolution.
That being is also unparalleled in prayer and gnosis, for, with the Jawshan al-Kabir, one from among his thousands of supplicatory prayers, he describes his Lord with such a degree of spiritual Divine knowledge that all the saints since his time have never been able, although those coming after have made use of the heritage of the preceding ones, to attain a similar degree of gnosis and description of God. The one who takes a glance at the meaning of even a section of the Jawshan al-Kabir from among ninety-nine will conclude that there is no form of supplicatory prayer like the Jawshan.
In his preaching of the message and in his calling people to the truth, he displayed such steadfastness, firmness and courage that, in spite of the antagonism of big powers and great religions, and of his own people and tribe, even of his uncle, he never showed even the slightest trace of hesitation, anxiety or fear, and he successfully challenged the world, and, as a result, made Islam superior to all other religions and systems. This proves that there is not and cannot be anyone like him also in his preaching of and calling to the message of Truth.
He had in his faith so extraordinary a strength, so wonderful a certainty, and such elevated and world-enlightening conviction that none of the prevailing ideas and beliefs of that time, and none of the philosophies of the sages and teachings of the spiritual leaders, although they were all opposed and even hostile to him, was ever able to cause in him any doubt, hesitation or anxiety concerning his certainty, conviction, and assurance. Moreover, all saintly men of all times, his companions primarily included, have all benefited from his faith which they admit to be of the highest degree. This fact proves that his faith too is matchless. The traveler, that seeker of God, therefore concludes, and his reason too admits that, lying and deception can have no place at all in the one who brought such a unique Law and such a matchless religion, and displayed such wonderful worship, such extraordinary excellence in prayer, such world-admired preaching, and who possessed a faith of such miraculous perfection.
Just as the consensus of the Prophets is a very strong proof of the existence and Oneness of God, so, too, it is a firm testimony to the truthfulness and Messengership of that being, upon him be peace and blessings. For history confirms that all the sacred attributes, miracles and functions that indicate the truthfulness and Messengership of the Prophets, peace be upon them all, were all to be found in that being in the utmost degree. The Prophets verbally predicted the coming of that being, that is, they gave the good tidings of him in the Torah, the Gospels, the Psalms, and the Pages; likewise through their missions and miracles they affirmed and ‘put their signature’ to the mission of that being, who is the foremost and most perfect in Prophethood. The traveler perceives that all the previous Prophets bear witness to the truthfulness of that being through the unanimity of their actions just as they testify to the Oneness of God through verbal consensus.
Having attained the truth and perfection, and the rank of working wonders, and gained insight into the reality of things, and spiritual discovery through following that being in all his deeds and principles, thousands of saints unanimously bear witness not only to the Oneness of God but also to the truthfulness and Messengership of that being, upon him be peace and blessings. The traveler realizes that it is as bright a proof as the sun for the truthfulness of that being that those saints witness, through the light of sainthood, some of the truths he proclaimed concerning the world of the Unseen, and that they believe in and affirm all of those truths through the light of faith either to the degree of certainty by knowledge, or certainty by sight, or of certainty by experience.
Thousands of exacting scholars of purity, meticulous scholars of truthfulness and believing sages, who have reached the highest station of learning through the teaching contained in the sacred truths brought by that being, upon him be peace and blessings, despite his being unlettered, the sublime sciences to which he gave birth, and the divine knowledge he discovered, not only prove unanimously with their strongest proofs and affirm the Oneness of God, the foundation of his mission, but also bear unanimous witness to the truthfulness of that greatest teacher and supreme master, and to the veracity of his words.
The family and the companions of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, who with their insight, wisdom and spiritual accomplishments are the most renowned, the most respected, the most celebrated, the most pious the most keen-sighted of mankind after the Prophets, after having examined and scrutinized all the thoughts and states of that being, whether hidden or open, with the utmost attention and exactitude, unanimously concluded that he was the most truthful, the most elevated, and the most honest being in the world.
Such unshakable affirmation of and firm belief in him from so many of such quality, the traveler understands, is a proof, as the daylight is a proof of the existence of the sun, for the truth of the cause of that being, upon him be peace and blessings.
This universe indicates the Maker, Inscriber, and Designer Who has made of it a palace, an exhibition, a spectacle. There should then be someone, a truthful unveiler who discovers the Divine purpose for the creation of the universe, an exalted herald who announces the meaning of this great book, and a discerning master and truthful teacher who teaches the Divine Wisdom, and the meaning and outcome of the transformations and purposeful motions in the universe. As the traveler, the seeker of the truth, comes to know, it is that being who carries out all these duties much better than everyone else, and as a consequence, he is the most truthful in his cause as the most exalted and trusted officer of the Creator of the universe.
There is behind the veil of creation One Who wishes through these purposeful and skilled works the perfection of His talent and art; to make Himself known and loved through those countless, adorned creatures; to awoke praise and thanksgiving in return for his boundless invaluable bounties; to encourage worship with gratitude and appreciation for His Lordship, through His affectionate and protective sustenance of life, and His provision of nourishment and bounty in such a manner as to satisfy the most varied of tastes and appetites; to demonstrate His Divinity through such mighty and majestic creativity and purposeful, awesome activity as observed in the changing of seasons and the alternation of day and night, and thereby to make men believe in, to submit to, and obey, His Divinity; and to manifest His justice and truthfulness by always protecting virtue and the virtuous and destroying evil and the evil, by annihilating the oppressor and the liar with heavenly blows. Certainly, with that Unseen Being will he be the most beloved who, serving the Divine purpose to the highest degree, discloses the mystery of creation, who acts always in the name of that Being, his Creator, and who asks Him alone for help and success, and who receives both: he is Muhammad of the Quraysh, upon him be peace and blessings.
The traveler says to himself in order to persuade his reason: ‘Since these nine truths testify to the truthfulness of that being, he must be the source of honor for mankind and the source of pride for the whole world. Therefore he is worthy of being called the pride of the world and the glory of mankind. Moreover, the fact that the Qur’an, which is a miraculous exposition ad the Decree of the All-Compassionate, which he holds in his hand, has taken half of the world into its magnificent spiritual domain, together with the Messenger’s personal perfections and elevated virtues, shows that he is the most important being in the world, and accordingly, his are the most important words concerning our Creator.
The testimony of that being, upon him be peace and blessings, to the Existence and Unity of God is not restricted to himself as an individual; rather it is so universal and unshakable that if all the demons came together, they would not be able to shake it. Even the diabolic beings were to unite, they could not challenge it. Such is the conclusion also reached by the traveler.
Come now and see: All the cause of that extraordinary being, the sole aim of all his life, based on the strength of his hundreds of evident and manifest miracles and thousands of sublime, established truths contained in his religion, was to prove and bear witness to the existence and Oneness of the Necessarily Existent Being, and to proclaim Him with all His Attributes and Names. He is therefore the ‘spiritual sun’ enlightening the world, and the most brilliant proof of our Creator, and is called ‘the Beloved of God’. There are three forms of great, truthful and unshakable consensus each of which affirms and corroborates the witness he bears:
The unanimous confirmation of that illustrious community known and celebrated throughout the world as the Family and Descendants of Muhammad, among whom are thousands of spiritual poles and supreme saints of such keen sight as to penetrate into the Unseen, like Imam ‘Ali, may God be pleased with him, who said: ‘Were the veil to be lifted from the Unseen, my certainty would not increase’, and ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, who ‘saw’ the Mighty Throne of God and the awesome form of Archangel Israfil while yet on the earth.
The unanimous confirmation made with so strong a belief that caused them to sacrifice their lives and properties, and their parents and tribes, by a world-famous community known as the Companions, who, although brought up among a primitive people and in a climate of ignorance, devoid of any positive notions of social life and administration, without any scripture and immersed in the darkness of uncivilized era after the Prophets, in a very short period, became, in the footsteps of that being, the masters, guides and just rulers of the most civilized and socially and politically advanced peoples and states, and ruled the world from east to west in a world-admired fashion.
The unanimous confirmation made with certainty of knowledge by innumerable exacting and profound scholars of whom in each age thousands have been brought up and extraordinarily advanced in each branch of science and art.
In reference to the lesson that traveler learned in the School of Light when he visited in his mind the happy age of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, we will give a summary:
There is no deity but God, the Necessarily Existent Being, the One, the Unique, the necessity of Whose existence in Unity is clearly demonstrated by the Pride of the World, the glory of mankind, through the majesty of the sovereignty of his Qur’an, the splendor of the inclusiveness of his religion, the multiplicity of his perfections, the sublimity of his moral qualities, as confirmed even by enemies. Again, he bears witness and brings proof through the strength of his hundreds of manifest and evident miracles, which themselves are proofs of his truthfulness and are unquestionably established; and through the strength of thousands of evident and decisive truths contained in his religion as affirmed by the consensus of his illustrious family and descendants, the agreement of his companions of insight, and by the unanimity of the scholars of his community, the possessors of proofs and enlightening insight.

Does the old-testament mention prophet Muhammad to indicate his prophethood?

Almost all the previous Prophets predicted the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings. Despite the changes they have undergone over time, we can still find indications to his coming in the Torah, Psalms and the Gospels.
A Prophet from among the brothers of the Israelites who resembles Moses

For example, the following verses of the Torah promise the coming of the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings:
The Lord said to me [Moses]: ‘What they say is good. I will raise up for them a Prophet like you among their brothers; I will put My words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. If anyone does not listen to My words that the Prophet speaks in My Name, I will Myself call him to account.’ (Deuteronomy, 18.17–9)
It is clear from these verses that what is meant by ‘a Prophet like you among their brothers’ is a Prophet who will come from the line of Ishmael, since Ishmael is the brother of Isaac, who is the forefather of Moses’ people, the Children of Israel. The only Prophet who came from the line of Ishmael after Moses and resembled him in many ways, for example, in the bringing of a new law and waging of war on his enemies, is the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings. Also, the following verse of the Bible in Deuteronomy, 34.12 (Istanbul 1885), clearly states that no Prophet like Moses did ever appear among the Israelites:
With respect to his virtues and awesome deeds, no Prophet like Moses, whom the Lord knows face to face, no longer appeared among Israel.
The Qur’an points to the same fact:
We have sent to you a Messenger as a witness over you, even as We sent to Pharaoh a Messenger. (al-Muzzammil, 73.15)
The sentence, I will put My words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him, in the verse in question, means that the promised Prophet will be unlettered and speak whatever is revealed to him. God reiterates the same fact in the Qur’an:
He does not speak out of [his own] desire. It is but a Revelation revealed. (al-Najm, 53.3-4)
The Prophet who shone forth from Mount Paran
The following verse,
The Lord came from Sinai and dawned over them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran. (Deuteromony, 33.2)
refers to the Prophethood of Moses, Jesus and Muhammad respectively, upon them be peace. Sinai is the place where the Prophet Moses spoke to God and received the Torah. Seir, a place in Palestine, is where the Prophet Jesus received Divine Revelation. Paran is where God manifested Himself to mankind for the last time through His Revelation to the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings.
Paran is a mountain range in Makka. It is mentioned in the Torah (Genesis, 21.19-21) as the area in the desert where Hagar was left by her husband Abraham, upon him be peace, to live with her son, Ishmael. The well of Zamzam appeared in it. As is stated explicitly in the Qur’an (14.35–7), Abraham left Hagar and Ishmael in the valley of Makka, which was then an uninhabited place within the mountain ranges of Paran.
The verse in Deuteromony, according to the Arabic version published in London in 1944 and the Ottoman Turkish version published in Istanbul in 1885), continues:
He came with myriads of holy ones; in his right hand appeared to them the fire of the Shari‘a.
This verse refers to the promised Prophet, Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, who would have numerous Companions of the highest degree of sainthood. The fire of the Shari‘a alludes to the fact that the promised Prophet would be allowed, and even ordered, to fight against his enemies.
Other verses in the Old Testament:
In the Psalms of David, there is the following verse:
O God, send to us after the interregnum (after the latest of the successive prophets) one who will establish (Your) way.’1
Here, ‘one who will establish (Your) way’ refers to the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings.
The following verse is from the Gospels:
A verse from the Torah says:
Surely God said to Abraham: ‘Hagar will certainly bear children. There will appear from her sons one whose hand will be above all, and the hands of all others will be opened to him in reverence.’2
Another verse from the Torah:
And He said, ‘O Moses, surely I will raise up for them a Prophet like you, from among their brothers (that is, from among the children of Ishmael); I will put my Word in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I Myself will call him to account.’ (Deuteronomy, 18:18-19.)
A third verse from the Torah:
Moses said: ‘O my Lord, I have found in the Torah a community, as the best of the communities, that will be raised for (the benefit) of mankind; they enjoin the good and forbid the evil, and they believe in God. Let it be my community!’ (God) said: ‘That is the community of Muhammad.’3
This is a verse from the Psalms:
O David, a Prophet will come after you, named Ahmad (Muhammad), the Truthful and the Lord, and his community will be forgiven.4
From the Seven ‘Abdullahs, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al- ‘As, who made extensive studies of earlier Divine books, ‘Abdullah ibn Salam, who was the first to embrace Islam from amongst the famous Jewish scholars, and the renowned scholar Ka‘b ibn al-Akhbar from amongst the foremost scholars of the Israelites, all pointed out the following verse in the Torah, which was not then corrupted to its present extent. The verse, after addressing Moses, addresses the Prophet to come in the following strain:
O Prophet, verily We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of good tidings, a warner and a protection for the unlettered. You are My slave; I have named you ‘the Reliant on God’, who are not harsh and stern, and not clamorous in the marketplaces; who do not repel the evil with evil, but instead pardon and forgive. God will certainly not take away his life until He straightens a crooked nation by means of him (by causing them) to proclaim ‘There is no deity but God’.5
Another verse from the Torah states:
Muhammad is the Messenger of God; his birthplace is Makka, he will emigrate to Tayba, the center of his rule is Damascus, and his community are unceasingly occupied with praise of God.6
In this verse, for the word Muhammad, a Syriac word meaning Muhammad is actually mentioned.
Another verse from the Torah:
You are My slave and Messenger; I have named you ‘the Reliant on God’.7
This verse is also addressed to a Prophet who will emerge after Moses from the progeny of Ishmael, the cousins of the children of Isaac.
Here is another verse from the Torah:
My slave is a ‘chosen one’, who is not harsh, nor he is stern.8
The meaning of ‘Mukhtar’, a chosen one, is the same as ‘Mustafa’, a name of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings.
The Prophet who will come after Jesus is referred to as ‘the Master of the world’ in several places in the Gospels. (John, 14:30)
In the Torah, there is the following verse:
The flags of the holy ones are with him, on his right. (Deuteronomy, 33:2)10
In this verse, the Companions of the Prophet are described as ‘the holy ones’, that is, his Companions are blessed, righteous, saintly friends of God.
In Chapter 42 of the Book of Isaiah, there are the following verses:
Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen one in whom I delight; I will put my spirit on him and he will bring justice to the nations. He will not shout or cry out, or raise his voice in the streets. A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out. In faithfulness he will bring forth justice; he will not falter or be discouraged till he establishes justice on earth. In his law the islands will put their hope. (Isaiah, 42:1-4)
These verses are certain to describe the Prophet Muhammad, who would come in the last phase of human history.
There are the following verses in Chapter 4 of the Book of Micah:
In the last days the mountain of the Lord’s temple will be established as chief among the mountains; it will be raised above the hills, and peoples will stream to it. Many nations will come and say, “Come, let us go up the mountain of the Lord, to the house of God. He will teach us His ways, so that we may walk in His paths.” (Micah, 4:1-2)
These verses obviously describe the Mount Arafat, the most blessed mountain of the world, and the nation of Muhammad, upon him be peace, together with the prayers and praises that would be offered by the pilgrims who would flock there from all climes.
The following verses are from Chapter 72 of Psalms:
He will rule from sea to sea
and from the River to the ends of the earth.
The desert tribes will bow before him
and his enemies will lick the dust.
The kings of Tarshish and of distant shores
will bring tribute to him;
the kings of the Yemen and Seba
will present him gifts.
All kings will bow down to him
and all nations will serve him.
For he will deliver the needy who cry out,
the afflicted who have noone to help.
He will take pity on the weak and the needy
and save the needy from death.
He will rescue them from oppression and violence
for precious is their blood in his sight.
Long may he live!
May people ever pray for him and bless him all day long.
...
May his name endure for ever;
may it continue as long as the sun.
All nations will be blessed through him.
and they will call him blessed. (Psalms, 72:8-17)
These verses describe the Prophet Muhammad, the Pride of the World, in a very clear way. Since the Prophet David, has a prophet come other than the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace, who has spread his religion from east to west, to whose name many rulers pay tribute, and whose way so many obey with deep adoration for him, and on whom one fifth of mankind call, every day, God’s peace and blessings? Is there anyone who fits this description other than the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings?
1. Although it does not exist word for word in the present editions of the Bible, it is recorded in Hujjat Allah ‘ala al-‘Alamin fi Mu’jizat al-Sayyid al-Mursalin by Yusuf Nahbani, p. 104.
2. Although it does not exist word for word in the present versions of the Bible, it is recorded by ‘Ali al-Qari in his Sharh al-Shifa’, 1:743. However, we read in the Torah, the following verses:
I will make the son of the maidservant (Hagar) into a nation. (Genesis, 21:13). Hagar, lift the boy up and take him by the hand, for I will make him into a great nation (21:18).
3. ‘Ali al-Qari, al-Shifa’ al-Sharif, 1:746.
4. Ali al-Qari, al-Shifa’ al-Sharif, 1:746.
5. Bukhari, Buyu’, 50; I. Hanbal, Musnad, 2:174; Darimi, 1:14-15.
6. Darimi, 1:14-15; Abu Na‘im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, 1:72.
7. Kastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya, 6:192.
8. ‘Ali al-Qari, ibid., 1:739.
10. This is almost the same in many versions of the Bible, i.e., in the one published by The Bible Company established in Istanbul, but we come across a different translation, if not an alteration, in the version published by Gideon International, which reads: ‘He came with myriads of holy ones from the south, from his mountain slopes’ (Deuteronomy, 33:2).

Did Jesus give the good tiding of prophet Muhammad's coming?

More emphatically and more frequently than any other Prophet, the Prophet Jesus, upon him be peace, gave the good tidings of the Last Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings.
The Capstone in the Gospel of Matthew

Jesus said:
Have you never read in the Scriptures: ‘The stone the builders rejected has become the capstone; the Lord has done this, and it is marvelous in our eyes? Therefore I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people who will produce its fruit. He who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces, but he on whom it falls will be crushed.’ (Matthew, 21.42–4)
The ‘capstone’ mentioned in the verses cannot be the Prophet Jesus for the verses refer to the crushing victories that the followers of the ‘capstone’ will win against their enemies. No people were ever broken to pieces or crushed because they resisted Christianity. Christianity gained ground against the Roman Empire only after it had lost its original identity and been reconciled with Roman paganism. The Western dominion over the world came after scientific thought’s triumph over the medieval Christian view of nature and was realized in the form of a ruthless colonialism. Whereas, Islam ruled almost half of the ‘old’ world for many centuries as a religion in its original purity and its enemies were many times defeated before it. In its struggle with other religions, Islam has always been successful. It is, again, Islam which is on the rise as both a pure, authentic religion and as a way of life, and which is the hope of salvation for humanity more than that, the Prophet Jesus himself alludes to this fact by stating explicitly that the kingdom of God will be taken away from his followers and given to a people who will produce its fruit.
Second, in a telling detail recorded in a hadith in the Sahih of al-Bukhari and that of Muslim, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, describes himself as the ‘capstone’ completing the building of Prophethood.
Paraklit, the Spirit of Truth

In the Gospel of John, Jesus promises the arrival of the Last Prophet using a variety of names:
But I tell you the truth: It is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the ‘Paraklit’ will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. When he comes, he will convict the world of guilt in regard to sin and righteousness and judgment. (John, 16:7-8)
In these verses, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is referred to as the Paraklit. Paraklit[1] is a Greek word meaning the Distinguisher between Truth and Falsehood. Although Christian interpreters have given this word different meanings such as Counselor (Gideons International) or Helper (American Bible Society) or Comforter (the Company of the Holy Bible), and claimed that it refers to the Holy Spirit, it is impossible even for Christians to establish whether the Holy Spirit has come down after Jesus and done what Jesus foretold he would do.
If, according to Christians, the Holy Spirit is the Archangel Gabriel, he came many times to the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, to bring Divine Revelations. Further, Jesus mentioned and predicted the Paraklit with other different names, but the same function, as is seen in the following verses:
When Paraklit comes – the Spirit of truth – who comes from the Father, he will testify about me. (John, 15.26)
I have much more to say to you, more than you can now bear. But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me by taking what is mine and making it known to you. (John, 16.12-14)
I will not speak with you much longer, for the Prince of this world is coming. And I posses nothing of him. (John, 14.30)
Who has come after Jesus other than the Prophet Muhammad, as the Comforter who has comforted human beings against fear of death, against worries about the future, against spiritual ailments of all kinds? As the Helper, who has helped mankind to attain real peace and happiness in both worlds? As the Prince of the world, who has ruled almost half of the world for fourteen centuries, and who has become the beloved of billions? And as the Spirit of truth who testified to Jesus, brought glory to him by declaring his Prophethood against the denial of the Jews and false deification of him by Christians, and restoring his religion to its pristine purity through the Book he brought? What shortcomings do the Western Christians attribute to the Prophet Muhammad, in contrast to Jesus and other Prophets, that, while almost all of the Christians of the ‘Middle East’ believed in him and converted to Islam within a few decades of his death, they persist in their denial of him and offer no justification?
Mawlana Jalal al-Din al-Rumi, a great Sufi saint, expresses in the following stanza the good tidings of the Prophet Muhammad by the Gospel:
In the Gospel Mustafa is mentioned with his attributes, in him is the mystery of all the Prophets; he is the bringer of happiness. The Gospel mentions him with his external form and features, and also with his personal virtues and Prophetic qualities.
In spite of the changes they have been subjected to over time, the Old and New Testaments still contain references to the Prophet Muhammad, only some of which we have quoted. The late Hussayn Jisri found one hundred and fourteen such allusions and quoted them in his Risala al-Hamidiya.
1. Paraclete is originally a Greek word. According to Webster’s New World Dictionary, it derives from the Greek word parakletos meaning intercessor, advocate, pleader. However, Abidin Pasha, a nineteenth-century scholar from Yanya, Greece, who knew Greek very well and whose works on Greek literature were highly praised by Greek authorities, writes that the origin of Paraclete is piriklitos, meaning Ahmad, the one who is much praised. (Hussain Jisri, Risala al-Hamidiya, 59). We also read in the Qur’an that Jesus predicted the Prophet Muhammad with the name, Ahmad, a synonym of Muhammad (61:6). Christians assert that by Paraclete Jesus means the Holy Spirit, but it is questionable what connection the Holy Spirit has with interceding, pleading or advocating, which, in fact, refer to the main attributes of the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, even though we accept that the word drives from paracletos. Besides, it should also be noted that translators of the Gospels intentionally refrain from writing Paraclete and, instead, they prefer to translate it, but all differently. Also, Jesus gives good tidings of the being to come not only with the name of Paraclete but also with such names as ‘the Prince of this world’ and the ‘Spirit of truth’, and with many other functions, which must, of course, belong to a Prophet, not to a ‘spirit’ or angel.


Is Muhammad mentioned in previous scriptures with his name Muhammad?

In the books of other Prophets, God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, is mentioned with such Syriac and Hebrew names as correspond to Ahmad, Muhammad and Mukhtar. In the Pages of the Prophet Shu‘ayb, upon him be peace, his name is Mushaffah, meaning Muhammad. In the Torah, he is mentioned as Munhamanna, which means Muhammad, and as Himyata, meaning ‘the Prophet of al-Haram’. In the Psalms, he is named al-Mukhtar, and again in the Torah, al-Hatam al-Khatam. Both in the Torah and the Psalms, he is referred to as Muqim al-Sunna, which means the one who establishes and enforces the Divine way for mankind. In the Pages of Abraham, upon him be peace, and in the Torah, he is mentioned as Mazmaz, and again in the Torah, as Ahyad.
God’s Messenger himself said, My name in the Qur’an is Muhammad, in the Bible Ahmad, and in the Torah Ahyad. In the Bible, he is also referred to as ‘the Possessor of the Sword and the Staff’. In-deed, among the Prophets who carried the sword, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is the greatest one, who was also commanded to perform Jihad together with his community. The Gospel refers to him also as the one who wears a crown. What is meant here by crown is turban, and it is the Arabs who have worn head covers with a wrapper around them since ancient times. Hence, the reference is undoubtedly to the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings.
In the tomb of Shamun al-Safa, the famous traveler Awliya’ Calabi saw the following verses in the Gospel, written on a gazelle hide: ‘I’tun (A youth) Azribun (from the progeny of Abraham) peruftun (is to be a Prophet.) Law ghıslin (He will not be a liar.) Bent afzulat (His birthplace is Makka;) ki kalushir (he will come with righteousness;) tunuminin (his blessed name) mavamid (is Ahmad Muhammad.) Isfedus (His followers) takardis (will prosper in this world,) bist bith (and also in the next.)
Certainly, Jesus frequently gave in the Gospels the glad tidings that the most significant leader of mankind would come, and mentioned him with some names in Syriac and Hebrew, which mean, as observed by meticulous experts, Ahmad, Muhammad, and Faruq (who distinguishes the truth from falsehood).


What aspects of Muhammad's life following his mission prove His Prophethood?

If the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, had cherished selfish aims and intentions, and if he had not been a Prophet chosen by God to guide people into truth, he would not have had to wait until he was forty to emerge with the claim of Prophethood.
Muhammad was unlettered. Until he was forty, no one heard him utter an eloquent speech, talk on religious and metaphysical issues, formulate any laws, and handle a sword. But, this reserved and quiet man, who had never given any indication of political interest or activity before, appeared on the stage of the world, as a greatest reformer expounding the intricate problems of metaphysics and theology, delivering speeches upon the principles of the decline and fall of nations, teaching ethical canons and formulating the laws of social culture, economic organization, group conduct and international relations, the world history has ever known. He turned suddenly into such a brave soldier that he did not even once retreat in the fiercest battles. He changed people’s modes of thought, world-views, and their beliefs, habits and morals.
The Prophet Muhammad is the only example where all the excellences in all the aspects of life have been blended into one personality.

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was not only an undefeatable commander, nor a most eminent statesman, nor a most influential spiritual and moral teacher. He is the only example where all the excellences in all the aspects of life have been blended into one personality. He is a man of wisdom and a seer and also a living embodiment of his own teachings. He is a great statesman as well as a military genius. He is a legislator and also a teacher of morals. He is a spiritual luminary as well as a religious guide. His vision penetrates every aspect of life and there is nothing which he touches and does not adorn. His orders and commandments cover a vast field from the regulation of international relations down to the habits of everyday life like eating, drinking, sleeping, and cleanliness of the body. On the foundations of his teaching he established a civilization and a culture and produced such a fine, sensitive, and perfect equilibrium in the conflicting aspects of life that there is to be found not even the slightest trace of any flaw, deficiency or incompleteness. What shortcoming and imperfection does he have when compared with other Prophets so that he is not confirmed as a Prophet and Messenger of God?
Muhammad lived as the humblest of all

Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings lived a very simple life, as the poorest of his community. He spent all the money he had earned by the trade before His Prophethood to spread his Message. In spite of his greatness, his behavior toward all people was that of the humblest person, that of an ordinary being. In the struggles and endeavors of his whole life he did not seek any reward or profit for his own person, nor did he leave any property for his heirs. He did not ask his followers to earmark anything for him or his descendants, so much so that although he and his family were the poorest of his community, he forbade not only his family but also his progeny from receiving from the benefit of zakat.
Muhammad was extremely merciful toward all the creatures of God.

Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was extremely merciful toward all the creatures of God. In Makka, his people inflicted on him every kind of suffering, eventually forcing him to emigrate to Madina, and then waged wars on him for five years. However, when he conquered Makka without bloodshed in the twenty-first year of his Prophethood, he forgave all of his enemies. His mercy even encompassed hypocrites and unbelievers. Although he recognized the hypocrites of his time, he never disclosed them so that they could enjoy the rights of full citizenship to which their outward confession of faith and practice entitled them.

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was particularly compassionate towards children. When he saw a child crying, he sat beside him or her and shared his or her feelings. He felt the pain of a mother for her child more than the mother herself. Once he said: I stand in prayer and wish to prolong it. However, I hear the cry of a child and cut the prayer short for the anxiety which the mother praying in the congregation is feeling. He took children in arms and hugged them. Sometimes he bore them on his shoulders.

The Prophet’s compassion encompassed not only human beings, but also animals. We hear from him that a prostitute was guided to truth by God and ultimately went to Paradise because she gave water to a poor dog dying of thirst, whilst another woman was condemned to the torments of Hell because she left a cat to die of hunger.
Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was extremely mild in his relations with people

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was extremely mild in his relations with people. He was never angry with anybody because of what was done to him. When his wife ‘A’isha, may God be pleased with her, was made the object of a slander, he did not think to punish the slanderers even after ‘A’isha was cleared. Bedouins often came to his presence and behaved impolitely, but he did not even frown at them.
The Prophet was also the most generous of people

The Prophet was also the most generous of people. He liked to distribute whatever he had. After Prophethood he and his wealthy wife Khadija spent everything they had in the way of God. When Khadija, may God be pleased with her, died, they had no money to buy a shroud, and God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, had to borrow money in order to bury the first person to embrace Islam and his first supporter.

According to the Prophet, the world is like a tree under which people sit to be shaded during a long journey. No one can live forever in the world, so people must make in the world the necessary preparation for the second part of the journey which will end either in Paradise or Hell. The mission of God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, was to guide people to truth, so he would spend whatever he had, his life, and his possessions, to this end. Once ‘Umar, upon him be peace and blessings, saw him lying on a rough mat and wept, saying: ‘O Messenger of God! While kings sleep in soft weather beds, you are lying on a rough mat. You are the Messenger of God and therefore deserve more than any other people an easy life.’ The Messenger answered him: Do you not agree that [the luxuries of] the world be theirs but those of the Hereafter ours?

Islam does not approve of monastic life. It came to secure justice and the wellbeing of mankind, but warns people against over-indulgence. It is for this reason that many Muslims have chosen an ascetic life. Although the Muslims generally became rich after the death of the Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, some like the Caliphs Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Ali preferred an austere life. This was partly because they felt to live as the poorest of their people and partly because they chose to strictly follow the Prophet’s example.
The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was the most modest of people. As he attained a higher rank each and every day, he increased in humility and servanthood to God. He preferred being a Prophet-slave to being a Prophet-king.

In the construction of the Mosque in Madina after the Hijra, he carried two sun-dried bricks while everybody else carried one. In the digging of the ditch around Madina to defend the city in the Battle of the Ditch, the Companions bound a stone around their bellies because of hunger, but the Messenger bound two, because he was more hungry than anybody else. Once, a man saw him and, due to his awe-inspiring appearance, began to tremble out of fear. The Messenger calmed him, saying: Brother! Don’t be afraid. I am a man, like you, whose mother used to eat dry bread. Again, a woman suffering from insanity pulled him by the hand and said: ‘Come with me and do my housework.’ God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, went with the woman and did the work. As reported by ‘A’isha, his wife, the Messenger patched his clothes, repaired his shoes and helped his wives with the housework.

Ali, the Fourth Caliph, may God be pleased with him, describes the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings: Whoever attempted to describe Muhammad would say: ‘I have, either before him or after him, never seen the like of him.
God’s Messenger was the most generous of people in giving out and the mildest and foremost of them in patience and perseverance. He was the most truthful of people in speech, the most amiable and congenial in companionship and the noblest of them in family. Whoever sees him first is stricken by awe of him but whoever knows him closely is attracted to him deeply, and whoever attempts to describe him says: ‘I have, either before him or after him, never seen the like of him, upon him be peace and blessings.’
Muhammad’s high morality, character, and achievements also prove his Prophethood.

Other than conveying God’s Message to people, in other words, performing the mission of Divine Messengership, who bears such an austere life as Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, lived, and what else other than a Prophet, can such a man as Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, be? And what substantial argument can one put forward against his Prophethood?


Could you give information about Muhammad's character and high morality as evidence of his Prophethood?

Muhammad was the humblest at the zenith of his achievements

If a man’s world-admired accomplishments or the wealth and fame he has gained do not change him, if he can remain as humble as he was at the beginning of his career, this shows that person’s strength of character, morality and virtue. Despite his unparalleled achievements, the Prophet Muhammad, was poorer and more humble when he entered Makka victoriously than he was at the beginning of his mission.
Those who saw the Messenger would say: ‘One with such a face cannot lie’

One’s face reveals one’s inner world and character. Those who saw the Prophet Muhammad could not help but admire his appearance and, if they were unprejudiced, acknowledge his truthfulness. For example, Adbullah ibn Salam, the most renowned Jewish scholar of the time, believed in him at his first sight of him, saying: ‘One with such a face cannot lie.’
If a fire-fly claimed that it is the sun, its lie could last only until the sun rises. Turkish people say that a liar’s candle only burns till bedtime, meaning that a lie has only a very short life. So, a deceitful one pretending Prophethood will soon be discovered and no one will accept him as a true Prophet.
Muhammad’s utmost conviction of his cause, together with his sincerity and solemnity prove his Prophethood

Even an insignificant man of small standing, in a small group in a disputed matter of little importance, cannot tell a small but shameful lie openly and comfortably without displaying such anxiety and uneasiness as will make his enemies aware of his deception. Since the Prophet Muhammad challenged everybody to come until the Last Day and uttered many important speeches in a large community concerning a great cause, with great ease and freedom, without hesitation or anxiety, with pure sincerity and great solemnity, and in an intense and elevated manner that provoked his enemies, it means that he was certainly a Prophet speaking whatever God revealed to him.
Despite being unlettered, the Prophet Muhammad spoke on every issue and has not been contradicted ever since

It is impossible for an unlettered one to speak on a matter requiring expert knowledge, especially before those with specialized knowledge of that matter. However, despite being unlettered, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, spoke on every issue from theology and metaphysics to medicine, history, physics and biology and has not been contradicted ever since. Besides, when he was raised up as a Prophet, the arts of literature, eloquence and oratory were at their peak and the Qur’an he received from God challenged all of its opponents to bring the like of a single chapter of its but no one has ever been able to do that.
Muhammad had to confront all kinds of hardships and persecutions after Prophethood and spent for his cause whatever he had

For the sake of a deception no one risks his life, wealth and reputation and bears great hardships and persecutions unless he has great aspirations to more wealth and great worldly positions. Before claiming Prophethood, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was well off and had a respected place among his community. However, he had to confront all kinds of hardships and persecutions after Prophethood and spent for his cause whatever he had. His enemies slandered him, mocked him, beat him, expelled him from his homeland and waged war on him. He bore all such cruel treatments and hostilities without complaint and asked God Almighty for the forgiveness of even his enemies. The only cause he pursued was to see everybody believing in and worshipping the One God exclusively and thereby prosperous in both worlds and saved from the torments of Hell.
Prophet Muhammad practiced with utmost sincerity and honesty what he communicated to others

History has witnessed many leading persons who, since they themselves did not practice what they preached or propagated, did not have a large devoted following. Their ideas did not have an enduring effect on people and the systems they established did not last long. However, the Prophet Muhammad practiced with utmost sincerity and honesty what he communicated to others and was always the first and foremost in obedience to the religion he brought, in worship to the Creator and in avoidance of the religious prohibitions. This shows his full conviction of his cause and that he is a Messenger of God, Who sent him to humanity to guide them to the True Path.

For what reason other than conveying God’s Message to people must he have endured all kinds of hardships and persecutions, such as sleeping on earth, suffering hunger for several consecutive days, spending a considerable part of his life on battlefields and military campaigns, being expelled from his homeland, becoming subject to mockeries and insults?
Man acquires an established character until he is thirty and especially after thirty a man’s character does not change. Particularly, it is very difficult for one to change his temper and disposition after he is forty. If—God forbid such a thought!— there had been any imperfection and blemish in the character of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, it would certainly have appeared before his Prophethood. Therefore, no one with a bit of intelligence and fairness, unless he is prejudiced, can accept that one who was never heard tell a lie and witnessed deceive until one was forty, would appear as the worst, meanest trickster of human history after forty.
A lying, deceitful one cannot have a large, dedicated following who are ready to sacrifice themselves for him

A lying, deceitful one cannot have a large, dedicated following who are ready to sacrifice themselves for him. Despite being among the five greatest Prophets, Moses and Jesus did not have followers as devoted as Muhammad’s Companions. The followers of Moses betrayed him when he left them for forty days to receive the Torah on Mount Sinai, and began to worship a golden calf which Samiri made for them. Even after so many years of intellectual and spiritual training in the desert, except for two God-fearing men, they did not obey his order to fight against the Amalekites, the people of Goliath. As for Jesus, upon him be peace, one of his most devoted twelve followers betrayed him and attempted to submit him to his enemies. But the followers of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, known as the Companions, were so devoted to him that they sacrificed for him their lives and properties. Although brought up among a primitive people and in a climate of ignorance, devoid of any positive notions of social life and administration, without a Scripture and immersed in the darkness of the uncivilized era after the Prophets, in a very short period, they became in the footsteps of their exalted leader, the Prophet Muhammad, the masters, guides and just rulers of the most civilized and socially and politically advanced peoples and states, and ruled the world from east to west in a world-admired fashion.

Also, innumerable exacting and profound scholars and world-famous scientists and pure, spiritual masters were brought up among the succeeding generations following the Companions. The civilization they established was the most magnificent one history has ever known. Is it conceivable, then, that all those most shining stars of human history followed a lying, deceitful one? God forbid such a thought!
His teacher was God

The Prophet Muhammad appeared in the heart of a desert which was almost the most uncivilized part of the then inhabited world and where people were immersed in the worst kinds of immorality. He had lost his father while he was yet in the womb of his mother. When his mother died, he was only six years old. It was impossible for his grandfather and uncle to bring him up as the most virtuous of all times. His teacher was God, as he himself said: My Lord educated me and taught me good manners, and how well he educated me and how beautifully He taught me good manners!
No one in human history has ever been able to combine in himself all of the virtues and good qualities as perfectly as the Prophet Muhammad

Human history has seen many virtuous persons. However, no one has ever been able to combine in himself all of the virtues and good qualities as perfectly as the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings. There have been many generous people but they have not been able to show enough courage when and where necessary. Likewise, there have been many courageous people, who have not been able to be lenient and generous at the same degree. But the Prophet Muhammad combined in his person all the virtues and laudable qualities at the highest level.
The Prophet Muhammad was perfectly balanced in his virtues and good moral qualities

The Prophet Muhammad was perfectly balanced in his virtues and good moral qualities. He was perfectly courageous where to show courage was necessary, while he was perfectly mild, forgiving and humble among people. He was perfectly dignified but also very gracious. There was no one more generous than him but he was also thrifty and condemned extravagance. In short, all virtues and good qualities existed in him in a well-balanced combination.
Prophet Muhammad had all of the essential attributes pertaining to Prophets

According to theologians, there are six essentials of Prophethood common to all of the Prophets. They are truthfulness, trustworthiness, communication of God’s commands, intelligence, infallibility and being free from all kinds of bodily and mental defects. History is a witness that the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, had all of these six essential attributes in a most perfect fashion.
Muhammad’s achievements are unparalleled in history

A man encounters in his life many situations where he must make decisions with no delay and hesitation. Many decisions made in such situations may cause him great difficulties. The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, made so great achievements in so short a time as 23 years that they are unparalleled in human history. He never faltered and all of his decisions proved to be true.

More than that, whatever he did and whatever he said did not concern only his own time but he addressed all times and places and all peoples and levels throughout the world to come until the Last Day. Is it possible for one who is not a Prophet taught by God, the All-Knowing, to have such intelligence, foresight, sagacity, insight, sound reasoning and prudence?


In what ways especially do Muhammad's achievements draw attention to his prophethood?

Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was peerless in educating people.

A man, whoever he is and whatever he does, may regard his own occupation as more important, more necessary, more beneficial to social life and more difficult than others. However, although every occupation has some difficulty of its own and is of some degree of use for social life, educating people must be much more difficult than others and more necessary for a healthy social life.

To bring up distinguished persons require distinguished educators. Only an educator who has established his aim in educating people and practices what he will teach and advise to his students, only one who knows the character, potentialities, desires, and ambitions of his students with the shortcomings and strong and weak spots and the level of learning and understanding of each, can be successful in educating people. Of course, this is not all that a good, successful educator must have. Furthermore, he must know how to treat his students in all circumstances, how to approach their problems and how to purify them of bad qualities and morals and, in place of them, inculcate laudable and good ones.

A man may have strong belief in what he must believe but he may not be practicing his belief in his daily life. He may have some good moral qualities but they might have not been an ingrained part of his character. Moreover, he may have certain weak spots such as taking bribery and insensitivity to making use of common property or hoarding up wealth. Therefore, if an educator can change his students completely and, purifying them of all bad habits and morals and all bad qualities which have long been ingrained in them and, in their place, establishing laudable ones, can form a community which will be a good example for future generations in all fields of life and good moral qualities, if an educator can transform the ‘rock, copper, iron and coal’ in his hand into ‘silver, gold, brilliant and diamond’, without doubt, you will conclude that that educator is an extraordinary one. What the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, achieved in educating people within so short a time as 23 years is much more than what that educator does.
Prophet Muhammad was matchless in knowing people each with his character.

It is another important dimension of a good education is not to resort to force. Penal sanctions, coercion and military and police forces can have some effect on directing people but only to a slight degree and for a short time only. Therefore, convincing people of the truth of what we teach to them and making it approved by them wholeheartedly is of vital importance in a good education.

No one in world history has so far been able to know man with all the dimensions of his character as well as the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, and there has never appeared a second one next to him who has made pitiless, crude, warmongering, ignorant and unyielding individuals into a community which sets a perfect example for all the future generations in all aspects of life and good moral qualities.
Prophet Muhammad guided people in every aspect of life.

No one can guide people in every field of life. It is very difficult for one, however able and clever, to be both an able statesman and commander and a brilliant scientist and successful educator at the same time. However, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was the most perfect spiritual and intellectual master, the most able statesman and commander, the most efficient educator, and the greatest scholar history has ever seen.
Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is the foremost in practicing all the forms of worship prescribed by his religion and the most God-fearing of people.

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is the foremost in practicing all the forms of worship prescribed by his religion and the most God-fearing of people. He observed the duties of worship with the utmost care and attention down to their minutest details even in most perilous circumstances of his life which passed in constant struggle and activity. He never imitated anyone in his worship and combined in a perfect fashion the beginning and the end of spiritual evolution.

He is also unparalleled in prayer and gnosis, for in his supplications and prayers he describes his Lord with such a degree of gnosis that all the saints since his time have never been able, although those coming after have made use of the heritage of the preceding ones, to attain a similar degree of gnosis and description of God.
Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was absolutely convinced of the truth of his message.

He had in his faith so extraordinary a strength, so wonderful a certainty, and such elevated and world-enlightening conviction that none of the prevailing ideas and beliefs of that time, and none of the philosophies of the sages and teachings of the spiritual leaders, although they were all opposed and even hostile to him, was ever able to cause in him any doubt, hesitation or anxiety concerning his certainty, conviction, and assurance. Moreover, all saintly men of all times, his Companions primarily included, have all benefited from his faith which they admit to be of the highest degree. This fact proves that his faith too is matchless.
All the sacred attributes, miracles and functions that indicate the truthfulness and Messengership of the Prophets, peace be upon them all, were all to be found in Muhammad in the utmost degree.

Just as the consensus of the Prophets is a very strong proof of the existence and Oneness of God, so, too, it is a firm testimony to the truthfulness and Messengership of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings. For history confirms that all the sacred attributes, miracles and functions that indicate the truthfulness and Messengership of the Prophets, peace be upon them all, were all to be found in Muhammad in the utmost degree. The Prophets verbally predicted his coming, that is, they gave the good tidings of him in the Torah, the Gospels, the Psalms, and other Scriptures which are called ‘Pages’ in the Qur’an; likewise through their missions and miracles they affirmed and ‘sealed’ the mission of Muhammad, who is the foremost and most perfect in Prophethood.
Thousands of saints unanimously bear witness to the truthfulness and Messengership of Muhammad.

Also, having attained the truth and perfection, and the rank of working wonders, and gained insight into the reality of things, and spiritual discovery through following the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, in all his deeds and principles, thousands of saints unanimously bear witness not only to the Oneness of God but also to the truthfulness and Messengership of that being, upon him be peace and blessings. It is as bright a proof as the sun for the truthfulness of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, that, those saints believe in and affirm all of the truths that being proclaimed through the light of faith to the degree of either certainty coming from knowledge or certainty by sight, or of certainty by experience.
Thousands of exacting scholars of purity, meticulous scholars of truthfulness and believing sages have reached the highest station of learning through the teaching contained in the sacred truths brought by the Prophet Muhammad

Again, thousands of exacting scholars of purity, meticulous scholars of truthfulness and believing sages, who have reached the highest station of learning through the teaching contained in the sacred truths brought by the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, despite his being unlettered, the sublime sciences to which he gave birth, and the Divine knowledge he discovered, not only prove unanimously with their strongest proofs and affirm the Oneness of God, the foundation of his mission, but also bear unanimous witness to the truthfulness of that greatest teacher and supreme master, and to the veracity of his words.
First and foremost of all, the family and the Companions of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, who with their insight, wisdom and spiritual accomplishments, are the most renowned, the most respected, the most celebrated, the most pious, the most keen sighted of mankind after the Prophets, after having examined and scrutinized all the thoughts and states of that being, whether hidden or open, with the utmost attention and exactitude, unanimously concluded that he was the most truthful, the most elevated, and the most honest being in the world.
In his preaching of the message and calling people to the truth, Muhammad displayed extraordinary steadfastness, firmness and courage.

In his preaching of the message and in his calling people to the truth, he displayed such steadfastness, firmness and courage that, in spite of the antagonism of big powers and great religions, and of his own people and tribe, even of his uncle, he never showed even the slightest trace of hesitation, anxiety or fear, and he successfully challenged the world, and, as a result, made Islam superior to all other religions and systems. This proves that there is not and cannot be anyone like him also in his preaching of and calling to the message of Truth.
Muhammad solved social, political and economic problems so easily and established such perfect rules in all these fields that they left permanent and inerasable imprints on all centuries and in the corners of the world.

Let us go to the Arabian peninsula in the Time of Happiness. That unlettered man who had not attended any military academy, nor a school for civil servants or a school of law, nor a school of sciences, presented such a religion and law that they contain all the principles to secure happiness in both worlds. His speech is so effective and penetrating that human beings in all times listen to him and his voice is echoed in every century. He solves all social, political and economic problems so easily and establishes such perfect rules in all these fields that they leave permanent and inerasable imprints on all centuries and in the corners of the world. He spends a considerable part of his life on battlefields and proves to be the most able commander of all times. He also shows himself as the best of husbands, the most eminent, yet most compassionate of fathers and the most amiable and loyal of friends. He does all this in so short a time as 23 years.
Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is also beyond all compare in knowing his people and educating them to mould their characters in the crucible of his message.

A leader must know his people very well in order to educate them and urge them to the realization of a cause. Alexis Carrel, a great French scientist and philosopher of this century, still describes man as unknown. Man is the most complex and intricate of creatures. However, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is also beyond all compare in knowing his people and educating them to mould their characters in the crucible of his message. He knew everyone to whom he would convey his message with all the details of his character, with his abilities, shortcomings, feelings, disposition and level of understanding. Besides, he also knew very well how to act in certain conditions and was able to give the best decision in all crises. To every position he appointed the one most qualified for and deserving of it and did not have to change the appointment later. He succeeded in bringing the most refined, well-mannered and civilized society out of an extremely backward, uncivilized and rough people.
Muhammad equipped and adorned the desperate, wild and unyielding peoples of the seventh-century Arabian peninsula with all the praiseworthy virtues, and made them teachers of all the world and masters, especially, to the civilized nations.

Consider how, eradicating their evil and savage customs and immoral qualities to which they were so fanatically attached, he equipped and adorned the desperate, wild and unyielding peoples of the seventh-century Arabian peninsula with all the praiseworthy virtues, and made them teachers of all the world and masters, especially, to the civilized nations. His was not an outward domination; rather, he conquered their minds, spirits, hearts, and souls. He became the beloved of hearts, the teacher of minds, the trainer of souls, and the ruler of spirits.
Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, removed numerous ingrained habits from large obsessed communities with a little effort over a very short period of time, and in their place implanted and inculcated exalted qualities in such a way that they became inherent in their being.

You know that despite all the advanced techniques and methods, modern communities are unable to remove permanently so small a vice as cigarette smoking. However, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, removed numerous ingrained habits from large obsessed communities with a little effort over a very short period of time, and in their place implanted and inculcated exalted qualities in such a way that they became inherent in their being. To those who refuse to see the testimony of the blessed age of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, we present as a challenge any part of today’s civilized world. Let them go there with hundreds of philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and pedagogues and educators, and strive for a hundred years, I wonder whether they will be able to achieve in that period a hundredth part of what the Prophet Muhammad achieved in a year.
When the Prophet began preaching his Message, he had to face severe opposition, but he confronted all the opposition with a smile on his lips.

When the Prophet began preaching his Message, he had to face severe opposition, but he confronted all the opposition with a smile on his lips. Once, the leaders of the Quraysh warned Abu Talib, the Prophet’s uncle, to persuade his nephew to abandon preaching his mission. The Prophet answered:

O uncle! Should they place the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left, so as to make me renounce this mission, I shall not do so. I will never give it up; either it will please God to make it triumph or I shall perish it the attempt.
The faith, perseverance and resolution, with which Prophet Muhammad carried his mission to ultimate success, is an eloquent proof of the supreme truth of his cause.

On another occasion, a deputation of the leading Quraysh called on him and offered him all the worldly glory they could imagine in return for his abandoning his mission. They said:
– If you want to possess wealth, we will amass for you as much as you wish; if you aspire to win honor and power, we are prepared to swear allegiance to you as our overlord and king; if you have a fancy for beauty, you shall have the hand of the most beautiful maiden of your own choice.
The terms were extremely tempting for any ordinary mortal, but they had no significance in the eyes of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings. He responded:
– I want neither wealth nor power. God has commissioned me as a warner to humanity. I deliver His Message to you. Should you accept it, you shall have felicity in this life and eternal bliss in the life Hereafter. Should you reject the Word of God, surely God will decide between you and me.
The faith, perseverance and resolution, with which he carried his mission to ultimate success, is an eloquent proof of the supreme truth of his cause. Had there been the slightest doubt or uncertainty in his heart, he would never have been able to brave the storm that continued in all its fury for twenty-one long years.
None of the world leaders have been able to bring about among the members of their followers so strong a unity of belief, thought and ideal as that which the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, realized among the desert men of the seventh-century Arabia.

Great leaders have appeared on the horizon of humanity. They have changed the course of history through either the states or empires they have established or the revolutions they have made. Nevertheless, almost none of them have been able to bring about among the members of their followers so strong a unity of belief, thought and ideal as that which the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, realized among the desert men of the seventh-century Arabia. Although Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, had never given any indication of political interest or activity for full forty years until Prophethood, he appeared all of a sudden on the stage of the world as such a great political reformer and statesman that, without the aid of press or of any modern telecommunication means, he brought together the scattered inhabitants of a desert of twelve hundred thousand square miles—a people who were warlike, ignorant, unruly, uncultured, and plunged in tribal war-fare—under one banner, one law, one religion, one culture, one civilization and one form of government.
Prophet Muhammad conquered minds and hearts and promised his followers nothing other than God’s approval and Paradise.

A leader must know men very well in order to urge them to the realization of a cause. In order to gain a following, most leaders make alluring promises to people, like power, wealth, position or a bright future. However, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, made no such promises to his followers. Nor did he resort to any force to realize his aim. He conquered minds and hearts and promised his followers only God’s good pleasure and Paradise. His followers sacrificed themselves in his way willingly and preferred to live a poor life in return for gaining God’s good pleasure and Paradise. Especially his own family lived as the poorest of his community. He always sought to prepare them, as well as his Companions, for the eternal peace and permanent bliss while himself setting for them a good example of that peace and bliss. His daughter Fatima, the most beloved to him among his family, once came to him with a necklace around her neck or a bracelet around her wrist. The Prophet said to her:

– Do you want people—inhabitants of the earth and the inhabitants of heavens—to say that the daughter of the Prophet is wearing a chain from Hell?

These words were enough for Fatima, for they were coming from the mouth of one whose throne was established in people’s hearts and who had conquered their minds. Fatima narrates the rest of the story as follows:

– I immediately sold the necklace, bought a slave and emancipated him, and then went to the Messenger of God. When I told him what I had done, he rejoiced. He opened his hands and thanked God, saying: All thanks to God, Who protected (my daughter) Fatima from Hell.
Despite all the most pitiless cruelties, Prophet Muhammad used to pray: ‘O God! Forgive them and guide them to truth, for they do not know’. Through his limitless love, compassion, forgiveness and tolerance, he made extremely cruel, warmongering people into the best community in human history.

Supposing you are a teacher at a school or a director in an institution. In order to bring up your students or the people under your command according to the ideal you pursue, you are determined to bear all hardships that may appear before you. Now, if they spit in your face when they are passing by you, if they put an animal abdomen over your head while you are in prostration before God, if they sometimes slap you in face, if they sometimes throw stones at you and scatter thorny plants along the roads you pass, if they ambush you in corners with daggers in their hands, if they mock you in front of others, if they slander your wife, if they kill your relatives and cut their bodies into pieces, if they attack you many times and injure you, and if they expel you from your native land, still can you bear all such cruelties and continue your way without the least hesitation? More than that, can you forgive them, pity them and pray to God for them, saying: O God! Forgive them and guide them to truth, for they do not know. If you are taken to a Paradise-like place and left free to choose between living there and going back to serve your cause amid hardships, do you choose to go back among the people to continue your mission?

Is it not the worst form of ‘blindness’ and ignorance to reject the Prophethood of that pride of humanity who, through his limitless love, compassion, forgiveness and tolerance, made extremely cruel, warmongering people into the best community in human history?
In human history there has been no one as much loved as his followers from the first day up to now love the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings.

The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, sent a group of envoys to the Adal and al-Qarah tribes to teach them Islam. However, a group from the Hudhayl tribe attacked the envoys half-way and, killing some of them, submitted the remaining three to the Quraysh. Zayd ibn Dasina was among the envoys. Before the Qurayshi polytheists executed Zayd, Abu Sufyan, who had not yet embraced Islam, said to him:

– I adjure you by God, Zayd, don’t you wish that Muhammad was with us now in your place so that we might cut off his head, and that you were with your family?

– ‘By God’, said Zayd, ‘let alone wishing that Muhammad were here in my place so that I were with my family, I do not wish that even a thorn should hurt his feet in Madina.’

Abu Sufyan had to remark: ‘I swear by God that I have never seen a man who was so loved as Muhammad’s Companions loved him.’

In human history there has been no one as much loved, as his followers from the first day up to now love the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings.
Prophet Muhammad answered all of the questions asked without faltering and he has not been contradicted ever since.

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, had to answer innumerable questions put to him by both the desert men of Arabia and the Jews and Christians of his time, concerning not only religion but also many other subjects such as history, metaphysics, astronomy, medicine and so on. He answered all of them without faltering and he has not been contradicted ever since.
Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, brought into history such a law, a religion, a way of life, a code of worship, a way of prayer, a message, and faith that the like of them has never existed, nor will or could exist.

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, brought into history such a law, a religion, a way of life, a code of worship, a way of prayer, a message, and faith that the like of them has never existed, nor will or could exist. For the law brought by that unlettered being is matchless in that it has administered one fifth of mankind for fourteen centuries, in a just and precise manner through its rules and injunctions. The religion of Islam, which originated in the Qur’an he received from God and his own sayings, precepts and example, is also peerless, for in each century it has been for hundreds of millions of people a guide and a competent authority or source for whatever matter is referred to it. It has also trained their minds, illumined and purified their hearts, trained and refined their souls, and perfected their spirits.
After the Companions, hundreds of thousands of saints and purified, meticulous scholars, thousands of scientists, and hundreds of thousands of literary geniuses, commanders and statesmen have been brought up in the footsteps of the Prophet Muhammad.

After the Companions, who gave the lead to all mankind in all fields of life including the scientific, political, social, administrative and economic, hundreds of thousands of saints and purified, meticulous scholars such as Abu Hanifa, Shafi‘i, Bayazid al-Bistami, ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, Imam Ghazali, Imam Rabbani, Bediuzzaman Said Nursi and many others, and thousands of scientists like al-Biruni, al-Zahrawi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn Haytham and others, and hundreds of thousands of literary geniuses, commanders and statesmen, and other stars of mankind, have all followed in the footsteps of the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings. Besides those persons, many intellectuals and statesmen of the West such as Lamartine, William Muir, Edward Gibbon, John Davenport, L. A. Sedillot, Goethe, P. Bayle, Stanley Lane-Poole, A. J. Arberry, Thomas Carlyle, Rosenthal, Elisee Reclus, Andrew Miller, Bismarck, Leopold Weis, Marmaduke Pickthall, Martin Lings and Roger Garaudy have had to confess his greatness, even that he is the greatest of mankind, and some of them have embraced Islam. This is another proof of his Prophethood.


Did Muhammad work any miracles to prove his Prophethood?

What must we understand from ‘miracle’?

A miracle is an extraordinary accomplishment which God Almighty brings about at the hands of a Prophet in order to prove his Prophethood, strengthen the faith of believers, and to break the obstinacy of unbelievers.
The universe operates according to fixed laws that God has determined. But for these laws and the uniform character of natural events, everything would be happening in a continuously changing, unstable flux and we could therefore not have found out the Divine laws of nature or realized any scientific developments. Although recent discoveries in atomic physics have made it clear that what-ever exists is a wave in continuous motion and therefore it is not possible to say that a second later its existence will be in the same state as it is in now, on the surface everything occurs according to the principles which the ‘classical’ or Newtonian physics established.
Normally, life has its own laws according to which we behave. We need certain amount of food and water to satisfy our hunger and thirst and go to a doctor when we are ill. We use animals to do certain kinds of labor for us but we cannot talk to them. Trees are fixed in their places and neither they nor stones and mountains give us greetings. We act in conformity with the laws of gravitation and repulsion and we do not attempt to rise upwards into the sky without first making calculations based upon those laws.
God is not dependent on or bound to any “natural” laws

All these and other laws are for us; but for them, as we pointed out above, life would be impossible for us. However, since it is God Who has determined them, He is not dependent on or bound to any of these laws at all. Therefore, He may sometimes annul any of these laws or change the ordinary flux of events and create an ‘extraordinary’ occurrence at the hands of a Prophet, either to pro-vide a proof for his Prophethood or to show that He is is able to do whatever He wills at whatever time He desires. We call such an occurrence a ‘miracle’. The original word in Islamic literature translated as miracle is mu‘jiza, which literally means something which makes others unable to produce a like of it. If God creates such an occurrence at the hands of a saint, not a Prophet, then it is called karama, meaning, literally, an ‘extraordinary favor’. These favors constitute another proof for the Prophethood of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, and the truth of Islam.
Examples of the predictions of some saints

There are innumerable karama God has created at the hands of Muslims. One kind of these consists in foretelling future events. For example, although having died almost half a century before the establishment of the Ottoman State, Muhyi al-Din ibn al-‘Arabi wrote in his Shajarat al-Nu‘maniyya about the Ottomans and predicted the conquest of Damascus and Egypt by them. He also wrote that Murad IV would march upon Baghdad and conquer it after a siege of 41 days, and that Sultan ‘Abd al-‘Aziz would be killed by cutting the veins of his wrists. Again, he writes in his work mentioned: ‘When “S” enters “SH”, the burial-place of Muhyi al-Din will be discovered.’ Us-ing symbols in his predictions, by ‘S’ he means ‘Selim’, and by ‘SH’, Sham (Damascus). Like his other predictions, this one also came true when the Ottoman Sultan Selim I conquered Damascus, he had Ibn al-‘Arabi’s burial-place discovered and ordered a tomb to be built on it.
As another example, Mushtaq Dada from Bitlis, an eastern province of Turkey, predicted seventy-one years before in verse that after many wars and convulsions Ankara would be the capital city of Turkey. Interestingly enough, Mushtaq Dada gives the name of the one who would change the capital city from Istanbul to Ankara. When you combine the initial letters of the lines of Mushtaq Dada’s piece of verse, you will read the name Kamal.
All of the Prophets were favored with miracle-working

God Almighty favored all His Prophets with miracle-working. However, since all the previous Prophets were sent to a certain people and their Prophethood was restricted to a certain time and people, the miracles they worked pertained to the arts or crafts widespread in the time of each. For example, since at the time of Moses, upon him be peace, sorcery enjoyed great prestige in Egypt, God Almighty favored Moses with a ‘staff’ which would change into a snake which swallowed all the products of sorcerers. Likewise, at the time of Jesus, upon him be peace, the healing arts enjoyed great prestige and most of the miracles Jesus worked pertained to healing.
The miracles of the noble Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, are very diverse. Since his Messengership is universal, he was distinguished by miracles that are connected with nearly all species of creation. When the aide-de-camp of a glorified ruler enters a city, bearing diverse gifts, a representative from each of the different peoples of that city welcomes him cheerfully, each in his own language. In the same way, when the supreme Messenger of the Eternal Sovereign honored the universe as an envoy to the human inhabitants of the earth, bringing from the Creator the light of truth and spiritual gifts that are related to the truths of the whole universe, he was welcomed as the Prophet by each species—from mineral elements to plants, animals and human beings, and from moon and sun to stars—in its own language and bearing one of his miracles. It would require many volumes to mention all his miracles.
The majority of the Prophet’s miracles, numbering about one thousand, were related, first, by a group of Companions and then by numerous reliable narrators and authorities, and were recorded in authentic books of Tradition. As for the rest of them, although they were related each by one or two Companions, they must also be indisputable, as they later acquired unanimity by being accepted as truth by reliable authorities and narrated by more than one chain of transmission. In addition, most of those miracles occurred in the presence of great gatherings, either during a military campaign or a wedding ceremony or on similar occasions like a feast, and one or two of those present related the miracle and the others confirmed him by keeping silent. Therefore, the miracles recorded in authentic books of Tradition are indisputable and it is impossible to deny or reject them.
Every word, act and state of the noble Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, bears witness to his Prophethood and his faithfulness, but not all of them need necessarily be miraculous

Every word, act and state of the noble Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, bears witness to his Prophethood and his faithfulness, but not all of them need necessarily be miraculous. For the Almighty sent him in the form of a human being so that he could be a guide and leader to human beings in all their individual and collective affairs, through which they can attain happiness in both worlds, and so that he could disclose to human beings the wonders of God’s art and the works of His Power, each of which is, in fact, a miracle although it appears to us ordinary and familiar. If he had been extraordinary in all his acts, then he could not have been a guide to human beings and instructed them through his words, acts and attitudes. He was, however, provided with some extraordinary phenomena to prove his Prophethood to obstinate unbelievers and so he occasionally worked miracles. But his miracles never occurred in such an obvious fashion as would have obliged people to believe as it were against their free will. For, in accordance with the test and trial that man is to undergo in the world, the way to truth must be shown to him without depriving him of using his free will. If the miracles had occurred in so apparent a way as to compel people to believe, without al-lowing them to use their own power of choice, then intelligence would have been left with no choice and there would have remained no meaning in testing man in this life and in his being the noblest of creation endowed with a free will and intellect.


Can you give examples of the prophet Muhammad's miracles?

The miracles the Prophet Muhammad worked fall in several categories:
The information prophet Muhammad gave about the past

Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, gave lots of information about past peoples and events
History is an important branch of knowledge. It is not a science like physics or biology. It mostly depends on documents that have remained of the past. Although we can have knowledge of the past and past events by means of documents, it is quite often very difficult to penetrate into the facts behind those events. We can hardly know the intentions of historical ‘actors’ or ‘actresses’ and the real motives behind events. In order to be able to judge rightly about persons and events, the documents we have should be reliable. Nevertheless, it is quite possible that personal inclinations and interests, prejudices, and different other motives may have a part of their own in documents, and, worse, documents may have been distorted. For example, if the Qur’an had not been sent down to our Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, we could not have had true knowledge about the Israelite Prophets and especially the Prophet Jesus, and the original identity of Christianity and Judaism. The Old and New Testaments have been so frequently and badly distorted and corrupted that it is impossible to open a way through them to historical truths.
The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, gave lots of information about past peoples and events. Much of this information is in the Qur’an. As well as the main points in the histories of many past peoples and places like the ‘Ad, Thamud, Iram, Sodom and Gomorra, and ancient Egypt, and the peoples of Noah, Abraham and Shu‘ayb, we can also find in the Qur’an at least the general outlines of the history of the Israelite people from the beginning to the time of Jesus, particularly including the time of the Prophets Moses, David and Solomon, upon them be peace. It is highly interesting that much of this information is in the Qur’anic chapters which were revealed in the Makkan period of Muhammad’s Prophethood, during which he had contact with neither Christians nor Jews. When the Prophet emigrated to Madina, Jewish and Christian scholars asked him many questions about certain topics in the Torah and Gospels and since they received from him convincing answers, they could not object to any of them.
Neither the Qur’an nor the books of Tradition have been changed the least over time and none of the information the Prophet gave about the past has ever been contradicted

Some of the information which the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, gave about the past is found in the books of Tradition like Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Muslim, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, and others. Neither the Qur’an nor the books of Tradition have been changed the least over time and none of the information the Prophet gave about the past has ever been contradicted. Rather, much of it has been affirmed the rest will also be affirmed through future investigations and excavations. This is an absolute, undeniable proof of Muhammad’s Prophethood.
Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, did not only give information about past events and peoples, but he also analyzed them with their causes and results

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, did not only give information about past events and peoples, but he also analyzed them with their causes and results. Thus, the historical accounts of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, are of the kind that they presented laws of history and the broad psychological, social and economic principles concerning human individual and collective life. In addition, these accounts are masterpieces of literary style and eloquence, such that it is impossible to produce a like of them.
Did Muhammad predict any future events?

Normally, no one can know exactly what will take place in future, even a few minutes later. Scientists are not certain about even natural events which take place according to ‘deterministic’ laws; they state that they cannot say with certainty that the world will be in the same state as it is in now. Sociologists and historians have spoken about historical laws that they have claimed to be based on historical events or the flow of history but history has contradicted almost all of them including historians and those who favor some notion of continual progress in history like Marx, Weber, Fichte, Hegel, Herder and others.
The knowledge of the future is only with God Almighty. However, He may favor whomever He pleases with some part of this knowledge. If a man is convinced about the news he gives concerning the future, he can only be a Messenger of God.
The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, made numerous predictions about the future, and history has not contradicted them. Like the information he gave about the past, his predictions are also to be found in the Qur’an and in books of Tradition.
Does the Qur’an give news of future events?

Some of the predictions the Prophet Muhammad made are found in the Qur’an. To cite a few examples?
The triumph of the Byzantines over the Persians

The Byzantine and Persian Empires were the super-powers of the time. It was during the years when the few believers were severely persecuted in Makka that the Persians utterly defeated the Byzantines. They had sweeping victories, and conquered Aleppo, Antioch, and the chief Syrian provinces, including Damascus. Jerusalem fell to their arms in 614-615. The Christians were massacred and their churches burnt. The Persian flood of conquest went on to Egypt, and reached as far as Tripoli in North Africa. Another Persian army ravaged Asia Minor and reached right up to the gates of Constantinople. The Makkan pagans rejoiced greatly, and redoubled their taunts and persecution against the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, whose Message was a renewal of the Message of Jesus preached in Palestine. The following Qur’anic verses, which were revealed just at that time, gave certain tidings of a very near victory of the Romans over the Perisans:

Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated in a land close by, but they, after their defeat, will be victorious, within nine years. God’s is the command in the former case and in the latter, and on that day believers will rejoice, with the help of God. He helps to victory whom He wills. He is the All-Mighty, the All-Compassionate. (30:1-5)

No one at that time could make such a prediction. But the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, conveyed these Divine Revelations to his followers. They confirmed him without hesitation and Abu Bakr bet the Makkan polytheists that the Romans would be victorious in nine years. Heraclius, the Roman Emperor attacked the Persians initially by sea in 622 (the year of the Hijra), and after decisive battles and three successive campaigns, put them to rout in a few years. His victories happened at the same time as the believers won the victory of Badr over the Makkan polytheists. Thus the verses above contained two predictions, both of which came true in nine years.
The Qur’an gave the news of the conquest of Makka two years before

It was only six years after the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, had emigrated to Madina that he left for Makka for a minor pilgrimage. However, the Makkans stopped him at Hudaybiya and a peaceful treaty was concluded after negotiations. Some articles of the Treaty were objected to by the believers but the Qur’anic verses which were revealed following the conclusion of the Treaty described it as a manifest victory and gave the believers the decisive glad tiding, which is as follows:

In truth, God fulfilled the vision of His Messenger: You will surely enter the Sacred Mosque, if God wills, in full security; you will have your heads shaved, your hair shortened, and you will have nothing to fear. He knew what you knew not, and He granted, besides this, a near victory. He it is Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion. God is enough for a witness. (al-Fath, 48.27–8)

One year later the Muslims performed the minor pilgrimage and the year after they conquered Makka.
The Qur’an gave the news that the dead body of Pharaoh would one day be discovered

In ancient Egypt, Pharaoh used to torture the Children of Israel. God sent Moses to him with the mission of inviting him to believe in One God and allow the Israelites to leave Egypt with Moses. Pharaoh refused and the struggle between them continued for a long time. However, one night Moses succeeded in marching towards the frontier with his people but Pharaoh, becoming aware of his attempt, set out to follow him. When Moses reached the Red Sea, he touched it with his staff, and a furrow opened across the sea. Pharaoh attempted to follow him, but was engulfed with his legions. While narrating this event, The Qur’an makes a very interesting prediction:

Today We shall preserve your body that you may be a sign to those after you: although most men give no heed to Our signs. (Yunus, 10.92)

The dead body of Pharaoh was later found floating on the Western shores of the Sinai peninsula. The native residents can still show you to this land, which is now known as Jabal Firawn (Hill of Pharaoh). A few miles from this hill is a hot spring called Hammam Firawn (the Bath of Pharaoh).
Tidings of the Last Day

A considerable part of the Qur’an is about the events of the Last Day. The Qur’an describes how the world will be destroyed and rebuilt again and how the dead will be raised, assembled in the Place of Mustering, and, after being judged, will go to either Paradise or Hell. The Qur’an also gives a vivid description of Paradise and Hell and the life in them.
Does Muhammad have predictions to be found in books of Tradition?

‘Umar reports in a narration recorded in Sahih al-Muslim:

‘Before the Battle of Badr started, God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, walked around the battlefield and pointed to some locations, saying, Abu Jahl will be killed here, ‘Utba here, Shayba here, Walid here, and so on. By God, we found, after the battle, the dead bodies of all those men in the exact places that God’s Messenger had pointed out.’1
While in Makka under great tortures, the Prophet predicted the future victories of Islam

Bukhari and Abu Dawud quote Habbab ibn Arat, who said:

Once, during the days of trouble and torture in Makka, I went to God’s Messenger, who was sitting in the shade of the Ka‘ba. I was still a slave in the hands of the Makkans then. They inflicted on me severe tortures. Unable to endure those tortures any more, I requested God’s Messenger to pray to God for help and salvation. But he turned towards me and said: “By God, previous communities had to endure more pitiless tortures. Some of them were made to lie in ditches and cut in two with saws but this did not make them forsake their faith. They were skinned alive but they never became weak against the enemy. Surely God will perfect this religion, but you display undue haste. A day will come when a woman will travel alone by herself from San’a to Hadramawt fearing nothing but wild beasts. However, you show impatience.”

Habbab concluded:

By God, what God’s Messenger predicted that day, have all come true. I have personally witnessed it all.2
The Messenger predicted ‘Ammar’s martyrdom in a civil war

Bukhari, Muslim and Ahmad ibn Hanbal record:

During the construction of the Prophet’s Mosque in Madina, God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, told ‘Ammar: “What a pity O ‘Ammar, a rebellious group will kill you.”3

‘Ammar was killed in the Battle of Siffin by the supporters of Mu‘awiya, who rebelled against Caliph ‘Ali.
The Prophet foretold that Fatima would join him first of all after his death

Before his death, the Messenger called his daughter Fatima to his bedside and informed her that she would be the first among his family to join him after his death.6 Fatima joined her father, the pride of mankind, six months later.4
The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, predicted the Mongol invasion, saying:

The Hour will not come before you fight against a people with red faces, small, slant eyes and flat noses. They wear hairy leather boots.5
The Messenger predicted the caliphate of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar

As related by Hakim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Hanbal and Ibn Maja, by repeatedly declaring, You should, after my death, follow the way of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar,8 the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, meant that Abu Bakr and ‘Umar would succeed him as caliphs. He also predicted that Abu Bakr’s reign would be short, whereas ‘Umar would remain longer to be able to make many conquests.6
The Prophet predicted the conquest of many important cities

According to authentic narrations, the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, gave his community the glad tidings that they would conquer Damascus, Jerusalem, Iraq, Persia, Istanbul (Constantinople) and Cyprus, and that the religion of Islam would reach as far as the remotest corners of the world in the east and west.7
The Prophet predicted the caliphate and martyrdom of ‘Uthman

According to an authentic narration, the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, declared:

‘Uthman will be killed while reading the Qur’an. God will dress him in a shirt but they will desire to remove it from him.9

By this saying, he meant that ‘Uthman would become Caliph but his deposition would be sought, and finally he would be martyred while reading the Qur’an. This happened exactly as he predicted.
The Prophet foretold the future victories of Sa‘d

As narrated in a authentic Tradition, the noble Prophet of God, upon him be peace and blessings, said to Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas when the latter was gravely ill:

It is hoped that you will be spared so that some people may benefit through you and some others be harmed through you.10

By this, he suggested that Sa‘d would be a great commander and make many conquests, and while many peoples would benefit from him by converting to Islam, many others would be harmed through him as a result of the collapse of their states.

Sa‘d, just as predicted by the holy Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, took the command of the Muslim armies and destroyed the Persian Sassanid Empire, bringing many peoples within the guidance of Islam.
The Prophet predicted the conquest of Cyprus

Once, when the Prophet woke up in the house of Umm Haram, the aunt of Anas ibn Malik, who served the Messenger for ten years in Madina, he smilingly said:

“I dreamt that my community would be waging war in the sea sitting on thrones like kings.” Umm Haram asked: ‘Pray that I too may be with them’. He said firmly: “You shall be.”11

All this came true forty years later when Umm Haram accompanied her husband ‘Ubada ibn Samit, on the conquest of Cyprus. She died there, and her tomb has since been a visited place.
The Prophet predicted the appearance of Mukhtar and Hajjaj

According to an authentic narration, the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, declared:

From the tribe of Thaqif will appear a liar who claims Prophethood and a blood-thirsty tyrant.12

By this, he gave tidings of the notorious Mukhtar, who claimed Prophethood, and the criminal Hajjaj, who killed tens of thousands of people.
The Prophet predicted the conquest of Istanbul

Again, according to an authentic narration, the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, declared:

Surely, Constantinople (Istanbul) will be conquered (by my community); how blessed the commander who will conquer it, and how blessed his army.13

He thus foretold the conquest of Istanbul by Muslims, and indicated the high spiritual rank of Sultan Mehmed, the Conqueror, and the virtuousness of his army. What he foretold took place centuries later.
1. Muslim, Janna, 76, 77.
2. Bukhari, Manaqib, 22; Abu Dawud, Jihad, 97.
3. Bukhari, Salat, 63; Muslim, Fitan, 70, 72; I Hanbal, Musnad, 12.161, 164.
4. Ibn Maja, Jana’iz, 65; Muslim, Fada’il al-Sahaba, 15; I. Hanbal, 3.197.
5. Bukhari, Jihad, 95, 96; Abu Dawud, Malahim, 10; I. Maja, Fitan, 36.
6. Hakim, Mustadrak, 3.75. Also related by Tirmidhi, I. Hanbal and I. Maja.
7. Hakim, 4.445; I. Hanbal, 4.303; also related by Muslim, Tirmidhi and I. Maja.
8. Abu Dawud, Sunna, 8; Tirmidhi, Fitan, 48; I. Hanbal, 4.273.
9. Hakim, 3.100; I. Hanbal, 6.114; I. Maja, 5.188; also related by Tirmidhi.
10. Abu Nu‘aym, Hilyat al-Awliya’, 1.94; also related by Bukhari and Muslim.
11. Suyuti, Jami‘ al-Saghir, 6.24; related by Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmidhi.
12. Hakim, 3.453; also related by Muslim, I. Hanbal and Tirmidhi.
13. Hakim, 4.422; Bukhari, Tarikh al-Saghir, 139; I. Hanbal, 4.335
Did Muhammad ever predict developments in science and technology?

God’s Messenger predicted that, through the reformations in agriculture and developments in science and technology, a pomegranate will suffice for as many as twenty people, with its rind providing shade for them. He also prophesied that the wheat produced in so small an area as a house balcony will be enough for the annual consumption of a family.1
The Prophet made many other predictions concerning developments in science. We will cite them while giving answers to the questions concerning his truthfulness.
1. Muslim, Fitan, 110; Tirmidhi, Fitan, 59; I. Hanbal, 4.182)


Apart from his predictions, ascension and splitting the moon, did Muhammad have other miracles?

Examples of the Prophet’s miracles related to his effective increase in food

As related by Anas ibn Malik, Abu Talha, on seeing God’s Messenger hungry, invited him to a meal. The Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, came with a crowd of people. Abu Talha had only one loaf of rye bread at home. Umm Sulaym, Abu Talha’s wife, spread some butter on it. The Messenger prayed for abundance, and since there was not enough space for all the people, they ate of the bread ten by ten and left satisfied. They were about seventy to eighty people.1
As another example, ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr relates that they, one hundred and thirty Companions, were in the company of God’s Messenger during an expedition. The Messenger asked them whether they had something to eat. One of them had about one or two sacks of flour . Dough was prepared to make bread and a sheep was bought from a polytheist who happened to pass by with his flock. They roasted the liver of the sheep, which the Messenger divided among those present, giving each a piece of it, and put aside the share of those who were not present there then. They cooked the meat in two bowls and everyone ate of it. After they finished eating all satisfied, the meat was still as if no one had eaten of it at all.2
There are many other examples of this kind of miracle. They were all transmitted through various—sometimes as many as sixteen—channels. Most of them took place in the presence of large assemblies and were narrated by many persons of truth and good repute.
Examples of the Prophet’s miracles concerning water

The Companions were left without water in a place called Zarwa. They were going to do wudu’ (ritual ablution) but they could not find enough water. God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, ordered them to bring a bowl of water. He dipped his hands into the bowl and water began to run from his fingers like a fountain. Anas ibn Malik says that on that day they were three hundred people.3

Anas relates this incident on behalf of three hundred persons. Is it at all conceivable that those three hundred people would not have confirmed him, if they thought him to be truthful, or otherwise contradicted him?
As a second example, during the campaign of Hudaybiya, the Companions complained to God’s Messenger about the lack of water. The Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, took an arrow out of his arrowbag and ordered them to put it in the well of Samad. When they did that, the water of the well began to gush. During the campaign, all of the Companions drank from it and did wudu’ with it.4
There are many examples of the Prophet’s miracles concerning water. They were related by numerous Companions and transmitted through various reliable channels.
Examples of the miracles of the healing of ill and wounded people

Authentic books of Tradition, including primarily Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih al-Muslim, report:
During the Battle of Khaybar, God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, asked where ‘Ali was. ‘He is suffering from sore eyes’, the Companions answered. He sent for him. ‘Ali came and the Messenger applied his healing saliva to his eyes. At the same moment the pain ceased and ‘Ali’s eyes became better than before. 5
‘Uthman ibn Hunayf relates:

A blind man came to God’s Messenger and requested him to pray to God to recover his eyes. The Messenger said: “If you desire, I’ll not pray—being blind may be better for your afterlife—or I’ll pray.” The man chose to be relieved of blindness and the Messenger told him: “Go and do an ablution. Then pray two rak‘as and say: ‘O God! Surely my appeal is to You and I turn toward You through the Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of mercy: O Muhammad, surely I turn toward God through you, that He uncover my sight. O God, make him my intercessor.’” The man did what the Messenger told him and his sight was restored.6
There are many more examples concerning this kind of miracle God’s Messenger worked, all of which are recorded in books of Tradition.
The testimony of animals to Muhammad’s Prophethood

The animal kingdom recognized God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, and became the means for him to work miracles. Although there are many examples, we will mention here only a few that have become well-known and agreed on by exacting authorities.
During the Hijra, when God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, took shelter from the pursuit of unbelievers in the cave of Thawr, two pigeons stood guard at the entrance like two sentries, and a spider, like a doorkeeper, covered the entrance of the cave with a thick web. As Ubayy in Khalaf, one of the chieftains of the Quraysh, was examining the cave, his friends suggested that they should enter, but he answered: ‘There is a web here, which seems to have been spun before the birth of Muhammad.’ The others added: ‘Would those pigeons, standing there, still be there if someone were in the cave?’7
As another example, Jabir relates:

I was with God’s Messenger during a military campaign. When my camel became exhausted and left behind, God’s Messenger prodded it slightly. This made the camel so fast that I had to pull on the reins to make it slower so that I could listen to the Messenger, but was unable to [slow it down].8
Anas ibn Malik reports:

After the conquest of Khaybar, a Jewish woman offered God’s Messenger a roasted sheep. God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, ate a piece of it but, according to the narration of Abu Dawud, stopped eating and said: This sheep says that it is poisonous. Then he turned to the woman and asked her why she offered him a poisonous sheep. When the woman replied that she wanted to kill him, the Messenger responded: God will not let you attack and annoy me.9
‘A’isha reports:

We had in our house a kind of pigeon. When God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, was at home, it would stay quiet, but as soon as he left home, it would continually pace to and fro.10
Anas ibn Malik relates:

God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, was the comeliest and the most generous and courageous of people. One night the people of Madina heard some voices and set out to investigate in fear. On their way, they saw a man coming towards them, who appeared to be God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings. He said to them: There is nothing to be distressed about. He had mounted Abu Talha’s horse and himself investigated the matter before anybody else. He turned to Abu Talha and said: I found your horse fast and comfortable. Whereas, that horse had been a very slow one. After that night, no other horse could race against it. 11
Examples of the Prophet’s miracles concerning inanimate objects

Jabir ibn Samura reports:

God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, once said: “Prior to my Prophethood, a rock in Makka used to offer me greetings. I still recognize it.”12
‘Abullah ibn Mas‘ud reports:

We could hear food glorifying God while we were eating with God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings.13
Traditionists unanimously report from Anas, Abu Hurayra, ‘Uthman and Sa‘id ibn Zayd, who said:

God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, climbed up Mount Uhud, accompanied by Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman. The Mountain, either in awe of them or because of its joy, trembled. God’s Messenger ordered it: Be still, O Uhud, for on you there is a Prophet, a truthful one, and two martyrs.14

In this saying, the Messenger predicted the martyrdom of ‘Umar and ‘Uthman.
It is established through authentic narrations from ‘Ali, Jabir and ‘A‘isha Siddiqa that rocks and mountains would say to God’s Messenger, ‘Peace be upon you, O Messenger of God!’ ‘Ali says: ’Whenever we went for a walk in the suburbs of Makka in the early times of his Prophethood, trees and rocks we encountered would say, ‘Peace be upon you, O Messenger of God!’15
The Prophet’s protection as a miracle

As related through various channels, during the military campaign of Ghatfan and Anmar, a courageous chieftain named Ghowras unexpectedly appeared at the side of God’s Messenger, who was lying under a tree. Ghowras unsheathed his sword and asked God’s Messenger, ‘Who will save you from me now?’ God will, the Messenger replied. “God!” Then he prayed: “O God, suffice me against him in any way You will.”16

At that moment, Ghowras was knocked down and his sword slipped from his hand. God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, took the sword and asked him: Now, who will save you from me?

Ghowras began to tremble and entreated God’s Messenger to spare his life. ‘You are a noble, forgiving one; only forgiveness is expected of you,’ he pleaded. God’s Messenger forgave him, and when Ghowras returned to his tribe, he said to them: ‘I have just come from the best of mankind.’
Abu Hurayra relates:

Abu Jahl once asked those near him: ‘Does Muhammad still rub his face against earth [i.e. make prostration]?’

‘Yes, he does’, they answered.

Abu Jahl added:

‘By Lat and ‘Uzza, if I see him doing that again, I will tread on his neck or bury his face with soil.’

A short while later God’s Messenger came and set out to pray. When he was in prostration, Abu Jahl approached him but suddenly turned back in fear and amazement, trying to protect himself with his hands. When asked why he had done so, he answered: ‘Truly, between him and me is a trench filled with fire, and something horrible and some wings.’

God’s Messenger commented on the event: “If he had approached me, the angels would have torn him to pieces.”17

God promised to guard him against people:

O Messenger! Make known whatever is revealed unto you from your Lord, for if you do it not, you will not have conveyed His Message. God will protect you from people. Surely, God guides not the unbelieving folk. (al-Ma’ida, 5.67)
The acceptance of the Prophet’s prayers

The authorities of Hadith (Tradition) including, notably, Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim, unanimously report that whenever God’s Messenger prayed for rain, his prayer was immediately accepted by God. There were even times when the rain unexpectedly began before he had lowered his hands while on the pulpit. As mentioned in books of Tradition and the Prophet’s biography, when his army ran out of water, clouds would appear to give them water. Even in his childhood, his grandfather ‘Abd al-Muttalib would go with him to pray for rain, and rain would come out of God’s love for him. This fact became famous through a poem of ‘Abd al-Muttalib’s. After the Prophet’s death, once ‘Umar took ‘Abbas as a means to pray for rain, saying, ‘O God, this is the uncle of Your beloved Prophet. Give us rain for his sake.’ Thereafter it rained.18
As was reported by Anas ibn Malik, while one Friday God’s Messenger was giving a sermon, a man came into the mosque and said to him: ‘O Messenger of God! There is drought. Please pray to God to send us rain.’ The Messenger prayed and it rained until the next Friday.

The rain continued for one week. The next Friday, while God’s Messenger was on the pulpit again giving sermon, a man stood up and said: ‘O Messenger of God! Please pray to God to avert rain from us.’ The Messenger prayed: “O God! Send the rain onto the places around us, not onto us.” Anas, the reporter of the event, says: “By God, I saw the clouds scatter and rain fall onto other places, the people of Madina being not under rain.”19
‘Adbullah ibn ‘Umar relates:

When the number of the Companions was about forty, God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, prayed: “O God! Give strength to Islam with which of those two, namely ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab and ‘Amr ibn al-Hisham, is more pleasing to You.” The next morning, ‘Umar came to the Messenger and accepted Islam.20
‘Adbullah ibn ‘Abbas reports:

God’s Messenger was in the toilet when once I carried water to where he would do wudu’. When he came out, he asked who had put the water there. ‘I did,’ I answered. Whereupon he prayed: “O God, make him profoundly knowledgeable in religion and teach him the meaning of the Qur’an.” 21

It is because of this prayer of the Messenger for Ibn ‘Abbas that Ibn ‘Abbas would later be called with the titles of the ‘Profound Scholar of the Umma’ and the ‘Interpreter of the Qur’an’. When he was still a young man, ‘Umar included him in his consultative assembly which consisted of the high-ranking scholars and elders of the Companions.
Anas ibn Malik relates:

My mother took me to God’s Messenger and said:

– O Messenger of God! This is my son Anas. Let him serve you. Please pray for him.

The Messenger prayed: “O God! Give abundance to his wealth and offspring.” 22

Anas remarked in his old age, swearing by God: “You see the abundance of my wealth, and the children and grand-children I have number about one hundred.”
Abu Hurayra once complained to God’s Messenger about forgetfulness. The Messenger told him to spread out a piece of cloth on the ground. Then he made some movements as if he were filling his hands with some invisible things and emptying them out on the piece of cloth. After repeating this three or four times, he told Abu Hurayra to pick it up. Through the mysterious effect of these actions of the Messenger, Abu Hurayra, as he himself later stated swearing by God, never forgot anything again. This is also among the well-known events related to the Companions.23
The Prophet met with angels and jinn and spoke to them

‘Umar reports:

We were sitting with God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, when a man appeared beside us. He had dark black hair and was wearing a white robe. There were no signs of traveling upon him. He sat before the Messenger and, touching his knees to the Messenger’s, asked him about faith, Islam, perfection of virtue (ihsan) and the Last Day. After the interview, the man left and disappeared. God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, turned to me and asked who that man was. ‘God and His Messenger know better’, I answered. The Messenger concluded: “He was Gabriel. He came to teach you your religion.”24
Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas relates:

At the Battle of Uhud, I saw two men dressed in white at each side of God’s Messenger, fighting for his sake. I had never seen them before, nor have I seen them since. (Sa‘d meant that they were two archangels, Gabriel and Michael.)25
Rifa‘a ibn Rafi‘ reports:

Gabriel asked God’s Messenger what was their opinion of the Companions who participated in the Battle of Badr. The Messenger answered like this: “We consider them among the most virtuous of Muslims.” Gabriel responded: “So do we; we consider the angels who were present there among the most virtuous of angels.”26
In his Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal reports from ‘Adbullah ibn Mas’ud that God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, invited jinn to accept Islam and taught them of the Qur’an. 27
The appearance of invisible objects and realms to the Prophet

‘A’isha Siddiqa reports:

One day the sun was eclipsed. God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, performed the prayer of eclipse and then explained:
Surely, the sun and the moon are two of God’s signs. When you witness an eclipse, pray until it ends. By God, in this place where I have performed the prayer I have seen everything promised to me. When you saw me move forward during the prayer, I did that to take a cluster of grapes which appeared to me from Paradise. Again, by God, when you saw me move backward, I did that because I saw Hell roaring with its parts piling one upon another.28
‘Adbullah ibn ‘Abbas relates:

God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, passed by two graves and said: “Heed what I will tell you: Those lying in those graves are suffering torments. They are suffering torments because of two grave sins. One of them used to backbite and slander others everywhere. The other was not careful [about guarding himself] against urine stains.”29
The testimony of trees to Muhammad’s Prophethood

Jabir ibn ‘Adbullah reports:

We were walking with God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings. We went down a wide valley. The Messenger searched for a place to relieve himself. When he saw that there was not a single covered place, he went to the two trees he had caught sight of by the valley. He pulled one of them by one of its branches, next to the other tree. The tree was like an obedient camel being pulled by its reins. He addressed them: Join together over me by God’s leave! The trees joined together and formed a screen. 30
‘Adbullah ibn ‘Umar reports:

God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, used to lean against a pole called the ‘date-palm trunk’ when delivering a sermon. Later a pulpit was built and when the Prophet started giving his sermons from it, the pole moaned because of its separation from him. The Messenger climbed down and stroked it. The pole stopped moaning.31
‘Abu Sa’id al-Khudri relates:

God’s Messenger gave Qatada ibn Nu‘man a stick on a dark night, saying: “This stick will light up your surroundings as far as seven meters. When you get home, you will see a black shadow. Without giving it respite to tell you anything, strike it with this stick. Qatada did what God’s Messenger told him to.32
1. Bukhari, Ayman, 22; Muslim, Ashriba, 142.
2. Bukhari, At‘ima, 6; Muslim, Ashriba, 175.
3. Nasa’i, 1.60; Bukhari, 4.233; Muslim, Hadith No. 2279.
4. Bukhari, Shurut, 15.
5. Bukhari, Fada’l al-Sahaba, 9; Muslim, Fada’il al-Sahaba, 34.
6. Tirmidhi, Da‘awat, 119; I. Hanbal, 4.138; I. Maja, Iqama, 189.
7. I. Hanbal, Musnad, 1.348.
8. Bukhari, Nikah, 10.22.
9. Muslim, Salam, 45; Abu Dawud, Diyat, 6.
10. I. Hanbal, Musnad, 4.112.
11. Bukhari, Adab, 39; Muslim, Fada’il, 48; I. Hanbal, 3.147.
12. Muslim, Fada’il, 2; Darimi, Muqaddima.
13. Bukhari, Manaqib, 25; I. Hanbal, Musnad, 1.460.
14. Muslim, Fada’il, 50.
15. Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3630; Hakim, 2.607.
16. Bukhari, Maghazi, 31, 33; Muslim, Fada’il, 13.
17. Muslim, Sifat al-Munafiqin, 38.
18. Bukhari, 2.35; Bayhaqi, Sunan, 6.147.
19. Bukhari, Istisqa’, 7; Muslim, Istisqa’, 1.
20. Bukhari, Istisqa’, 7; Muslim, Istisqa’, 1.
21. Bukhari, ‘Ilm, 17; Muslim, Fada’il, 137.
22. Muslim, Fada’il, 143.
23. Muslim, Fada’il, 159.
24. Bukhari, Iman, 37.
25. Bukhari, Maghazi, 18; Muslim, Fada’il, 46–7.
26. Bukhari, Maghazi, 11.
27. Musnad, 1.455.
28. Bukhari, Abwab ‘amal fi l-Salat, 2; Muslim, Kusuf, 3.
29. Bukhari, Adab, 46; Muslim, Tahara, 3.
30. Muslim, Zuhd, 74.
31. Bukhari, Manaqib, 25; Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 6; Nasa’i, Jumu‘ah, 17.
32. I. Hanbal, Musnad, 3.65


It is generally accepted that the Qur'an is the greatest and eternal miracle of Muhammad. In what ways particularly is the Qur'an a miracle?

The greatest and the eternal miracle of God’s Messenger is the Wise Qur’an, which itself encompasses hundreds of proofs of his Prophethood, and whose miraculousness of forty different aspects has been proved. Referring the reader to another treatise concerning the miraculousness of the Qur’an, we will here mention only a few significant points in this respect.
First point

Question

The miraculousness of the Qur’an lies mainly in its eloquence, which can be comprehended only by one discerning scholar out of a thousand. Should it not be however, the right of every class of people to grasp a glimpse of this miraculousness according to their capacity of understanding?

Answer

The Wise Qur’an has a different kind of miraculousness relating to each class of people. It indicates its miraculousness to each of them in a different, unique way. To the men of eloquence and rhetoric, it shows the miraculousness of its extraordinary eloquence; to poets and orators, it displays the miraculousness of its uniquely exalted style, one which cannot be imitated although it is liked by everyone. The passage of time cannot have any effect on its freshness, so it is always new. Its metrical and rhythmic prose and its verse have the greatest nobility and charm.
To soothsayers and foretellers, the Qur’an exhibits the aspect of its miraculousness which consists of the reports it gives concerning the Unseen. To historians and chroniclers, it shows its miraculousness by giving information about the nations of bygone ages, as well as the conditions and events of the future, of the intermediate world and of the Hereafter. To social and political scientists, it presents the miraculousness of its sacred principles which comprise the supreme Sacred Law of Islam. As for those who are engaged in the knowledge of God and Divine laws of nature, the Qur’an shows them the miraculousness of the sacred Divine truths that it contains. And to those following a spiritual way to sainthood, it manifests the profound, manifold meanings in its verses that rise in successive motions like waves of the sea. In short, the Qur’an shows its miraculousness of forty different aspects to every level of understanding or class of learning, by opening to each a different window. Even those masses who have only ears to give to the Qur’an and drive a very limited degree of meaning from it agree that the Qur’an never sounds like other books. Any ordinary person who listens to the Qur’an says, ‘This Qur’an is either below other books in degree–which is utterly impossible, and cannot be claimed even by its enemies–or above them all and therefore is a miracle.’ Now, we will explain the aspect of the miraculousness of the Qur’an which is perceived by that ordinary person who simply listens to the Qur’an.
The miraculous Qur’an emerged with a challenge to the whole world and stirred up in people two kinds of feelings:
in friends, a desire to imitate its style, to speak and write like their beloved Qur’an;
in enemies, a passion to criticize and dispute, to nullify its claim of miraculousness by competing with its style.
Under the influence of these two strong feelings, millions of books have been written in Arabic, and they are still at hand. Whoever listens to even the most eloquent and rhetorical of them will certainly say that the Qur’an does not sound like any of them at all. This means that the Qur’an is not of the same degree as them; it is either below them all–an utter impossibility claimed by no one, not even by Satan–or above all other books that have ever been written.
There is another miraculous aspect of the Wise Qur’an which it shows to the illiterate, namely that its recitation does not bore anyone. Any common illiterate man, even though he does not comprehend its meaning, would undoubtedly say when he listens to the Qur’an, ‘If I hear a most beautiful and most well-known couplet two or three times, it starts to bore me. But this is not the case for the Qur’an; the more I listen, the more pleasant it becomes. It cannot be the composition of man.’
The Qur’an has a miraculousness to show even to children trained in learning it by heart. Despite its many similar verses and passages that might cause confusion, the Qur’an is easily committed to memory by children who cannot retain for long even a single passage of other matter.
For even the ill and those lying on their death beds, who are disturbed by the slightest noise, the recitation and sound of the Qur’an becomes as sweet and comforting as the water of Zamzam, thus displaying another aspect of its miraculousness.
One of the almost forty classes of people to whom the Qur’an shows its miraculous qualities without depriving any of them, is those who can see but have no hearing and no means for learning. For instance, in the copy of the Qur’an written by the calligrapher Hafiz ‘Uthman, many related words are in a position to correspond to each other on different pages. If the sheets beneath the phrase their dog being the eighth are pierced in Sura al-Kahf (the Chapter of the Cave), with a slight deviation it will go through the word Qıtmir in Surah al-Fatir, thus giving the name of the dog. Similarly, the words mukhdarun and mukhdarin (they will be brought before us) in Sura al-Saffat correspond both to each other and to the one occurring in Surah Ya sin twice, one below the other. The word mathna (in pairs) occurs three times in the Qur’an; that the two of them correspond to each other one being at the beginning of Sura al-Fatir, the other towards the end of Sura Saba’ cannot be a mere coincidence. There are numerous examples of this kind in the Qur’an; in some cases, the same word occurs almost in the same place in five or six pages. I once saw a copy of the Qur’an in which were written in red ink similar passages facing each other on two facing pages. I then concluded that this was an indication of a different kind of miracle. Later I came to notice that there are many more passages on varying pages significantly facing each other. Since the verses and chapters of the Qur’an were arranged upon the instruction of the Prophet himself, upon him be peace, and the Qur’an was later copied through Divine inspiration, its design and calligraphy bear the indications of a kind of miracle. If, however, there are some slight, observed deviations, they are actually the results of human errors; were they arranged in the most proper manner, they could coincide perfectly.
Furthermore, on each of the suras (chapters) of great or medium length which were revealed in Madina, the word Allah is repeated in a very significant manner, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or eleven times on both sides of a sheet, or on the two facing pages, thus displaying a beautiful and significant numerical proportionate. (1,2,3)
Second point

As the art of magic was widespread at the time of the Prophet Moses, upon him be peace, the miracles with which he was endowed were of the same nature, and as the practice of medicine was in demand at the time of Jesus, upon him be peace, the miracles he worked were of the same kind. Similarly, when Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was raised as a prophet, four crafts enjoyed popularity in the Arabian peninsula: first, eloquence and fluency in writing and speaking; second, poetry and oratory; third, soothsaying and divination; fourth, knowledge about the events of the past and about cosmology.
When the miraculous Qur’an came, it challenged the experts in these four fields.
It brought the men of eloquence to their knees before it. They all listened to the Qur’an in total admiration.
It shocked the poets and orators so that they bit their fingers in amazement. It caused them to bring down their most celebrated Seven Poems written in gold and hung on the walls of the Ka’ba.
It silenced the soothsayers and magicians. By making them forget their knowledge of the Unseen and causing their jinn to be expelled from the heavens, it put an end to soothsaying.
It saved from myths and fabrications those who had knowledge of the history of previous nations and of cosmological facts, and instructed them in the reality of past events and in illuminating facts of creation.
These four groups, as a result, went on their knees before the Qur’an in absolute astonishment and awe, and became its students. None of them ever made an attempt to challenge with even a chapter of it.
How do we know that nobody has ever been able to dispute with the Qur’an, and that such a challenge is not possible at all?

Had it been possible to challenge the Qur’an, somebody would certainly have attempted to do it. Actually, such a challenge was directly needed by the opponents of the Qur’an, since, first of all, they felt their religion, life and properties in danger; they would all have thought themselves saved by any kind of challenge. So, had it ever been possible to challenge the Qur’an, they would certainly have tried it, and there were lots of unbelievers and hypocrites ready to advertise it widely, just as they spread all kinds of malicious propaganda against Islam. If they had succeeded with any kind of challenge, their success would have been recorded with exaggeration in the books of history. Now all the books of history are out in the open; none of them contains anything other than a few nonsensical lines of Musaylima al-Kadhdhab (the Liar), a false claimant to Prophethood. They never dared any challenge, although the Wise Qur’an challenged them continuously for twenty-three years in a way that provoked and annoyed them:
Come on, and produce a like of this Qur’an by means of an unlettered man like Muhammad, the Trustworthy! If you can not do that, let it not be an unlettered man, but the most knowledgeable and one well-versed in writing. If you cannot do that either, let it not be one person, but gather all your learned and eloquent ones to help each other; also invoke the aid of your gods and goddesses upon whom you rely. This too you cannot do; make use of all the books of the highest eloquence that have ever been written, and let all the unbelievers to come until Doomsday make use of your experiences in their attempt. Still you have not been able to score any success, try to produce the like of only ten chapters of the Qur’an, not of the whole of it. If you see that you are unable to match any ten chapters of the Qur’an truly and in all respects, then make a composition from baseless stories and imaginative tales to match only the metrical verse and eloquence of the Qur’an. Even this you cannot do, so bring about the equal of only one chapter. If you are still unsuccessful, let it not be a long one; suffice it to produce the like of any short one! Otherwise, your religion, your lives and properties, and your families will be at stake both in this world and in the Hereafter!
With these eight alternatives, the Qur’an has challenged and silenced men and jinn, not for twenty-three years, but for fourteen centuries. Nevertheless, those unbelievers who lived in the early days of Islam, instead of preferring the easiest way, that is, open challenge, chose the most dreadful way–to wage war, endangering their lives and properties and their families because challenging the Qur’an was absolutely impossible. Otherwise no man of wisdom, especially those of the Arabian peninsula of that time and especially those intelligent men of the Quraysh, would have had recourse to this most difficult way, if any literary man among them had been able to bring about the equal of a single chapter of the Qur’an and thereby save them from the attacks of the Qur’an.
In summary, as the famous Jahiz put it, since challenge by words was impossible, they had to resort to struggle by the sword.
Isn’t it possible to dispute a chapter, or at least, a verse of the Qur’an?

Question

Some scholars of discernment have maintained that not a chapter of the Qur’an, nor a verse, nor a sentence, nor even a word of it is ever possible to be disputed; nor has anyone ever been able to do this. This judgment sounds exaggerated, and is too hard to accept. For there are many words produced by men, which have some resemblance to the Qur’an. So, how do you interpret this judgment?

Answer

There are two schools of opinion concerning the miraculousness of the Qur’an:
According to the prevailing opinion, the eloquence of the Qur’an and the virtues in its meaning are beyond human capacity.
The other opinion is that although it is within human capacity to challenge and compete with a chapter of the Qur’an, God Almighty prevented it as a miracle of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings. For example, if a Prophet told a man, who is normally able to stand up, ‘You will not be able to stand up’, and the man could not then stand up, it would be considered a miracle of the Prophet. This school is called the school of ‘Sarfa’, from the viewpoint of which the All-Mighty prevented men and jinn from producing even a chapter of the Qur‘an. If He had not, men and jinn might have put up a challenge against one chapter. So, according to this view, the scholars who maintain that even a word of the Qur’an cannot be challenged are right in their opinion. For, prevented by the All-Mighty on account of the miraculousness of the Qur’an, they could not even open their mouths to offer a challenge; even if they had, they could not have uttered a word because God was preventing it.
In the view of the scholars belonging to the first school, there is, however, a subtle point that the words and verses of the Qur’an are all interrelated. Sometimes it occurs that a word is related to ten other occurrences, thus bearing ten relationships and providing ten instances of eloquence. In another book of mine entitled Isharat al-I’jaz (The Signs of Miraculousness), which is a key to the interpretation of the Qur’an, I showed some examples in this regard drawn from some passages of Sura al-Fatiha (the Opening Chapter) and from the initial verses of Sura al-Baqara.
In a well-ornamented palace, for example, to place a gem that is of the greatest importance in the decorative pattern, in the most suitable location on the wall is possible only after knowing the whole design. Likewise, to place the pupil of the eye in its correct location entails knowing all the function of the body and its complex organization, as well as its relationship with the function of the eye. In just the same way the foremost among men of exact science and profound truth have demonstrated numerous relationships between the words of the Qur’an and the manifold relationship each word has with some other verses and expressions. The scholars who have studied the mysteries of letters have gone even further, and proved that each letter of the Qur’an bears many inner meanings the explanation of which might cover pages. Since the Qur’an is the Word of the Creator of everything, each of its words may function as the core or heart of an ideal body around it made of hidden meanings, or as the seed of such an ideal tree. Thus, there might be among the words of men some similar to those of the Qur’an, but to place them properly taking into consideration of all such relationships as exist between the Qur’anic words calls for an all-comprehending knowledge.
Third point

Once a brief reflection on the miraculous nature of the Qur’an occurred to my heart. Now I will give below a translation of that reflection which was then expressed in Arabic:
Glory be to God Who Himself witnesses to His Oneness, and has disclosed the qualities of His grace, majesty and perfection through the Wise Qur’an, whose six sides are luminous; neither misgiving nor doubt can find a way into it. It is supported by God’s Throne of Sovereignty, from where it holds the light of revelation. It leads to the happiness of the two worlds, aiming at the light of Paradise and eternal bliss. Above it shines the seal of miraculousness, beneath it lie the pillars of proof and evidence, and inside it is pure guidance. It urges minds to seek to confirm it through warnings like Will they not comprehend and reflect? With the spiritual pleasures it bestows upon the heart, it makes the conscience testify to its miraculousness. From which side or corner, then, could the arrows of doubt invade such a miraculous Qur’an?
The miraculous Qur’an includes the content of the books of all the prophets, all the saints and the men of monotheism, of varying ways, temperaments and ages. That is to say, all those men of heart and intellect mentioned in their books the laws and fundamentals of the Qur’an in a way to show their affirmation of them, and became like the roots of the ‘celestial tree of the Qur’an’.
The Wise Qur’an is truly a revelation; the Majestic One Who revealed it demonstrated through the miracles He created at the hands of Muhammad, upon him be peace, that it is revelation; the Qur’an itself shows with its miraculousness that it has come from the Exalted Throne of God. Lastly, the anxiety that the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, to whom the Qur’an was revealed, showed at the beginning of the revelation, his half-conscious state when receiving revelation and the sincere respect and devotion he showed to the Qur’an more than any other–all prove that the Qur’an is revelation, derived from past eternity and entrusted to the Prophet, upon him be peace.
The Qur’an is obviously pure guidance, since unbelief, which is its opposite, is evidently misguidance. The Qur’an is of necessity the source of the light of belief, for the opposite of this light is certainly darkness.
The Qur’an is of a certainty the spring of truths, into which neither imagination nor superstition can find a way. The truthful world of Islam it shaped after its revelation, the well-founded law which it presented and the highest virtues that it manifested all give evidence that it is completely truthful in its dealings with the matters of the Unseen as with the matters of the visible world.
The Qur’an manifestly and undoubtedly shows the way to happiness in both worlds and guides man to it; whoever doubts this, it will suffice for him to read the Qur’an only once and heed what it says. The fruits of the Qur’an are perfect and life-giving, which demonstrates that it is deeply rooted in truth and true vigor, for the vigor of the fruit indicates the life of the tree. See, if you want an example, how many perfect, vigorous and luminous fruits it has yielded in each century, such as the men of sainthood, purity and profound learning.
The Qur’an is, through a conviction and intuition coming from countless different indications, so esteemed and sought after by men, jinn and the angels that when the Qur’an is recited, they gather around it like moths.
The Qur’an, besides being revelation, is also confirmed and fortified by rational proofs, as is unanimously agreed upon by the most profound men of logic. In fact, geniuses of philosophy such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes), and especially the most learned of theology have unanimously proved the truth of the fundamentals of the Qur’an with their particular methods of reasoning. The very nature of man, so long as it remains unspoiled, affirms the truth of the Qur’an, for the conscience can be satisfied and hearts can be at rest only through the light of the Qur’an.
The Qur’an is, manifestly and evidently, an everlasting miracle; it continually unfolds its miraculousness. It never fades or perishes like other kinds of miracle, nor does it age with the passage of time.
The Qur’an is so inclusive and comprehensive in its guidance that the Archangel Gabriel and a young child listen to it side by side, both deriving their lessons. A most brilliant philosopher like Ibn Sina sits before the Qur’an knee to knee with an ordinary reciter of it to receive its teaching; it might even sometimes occur that the ordinary reciter drives, by virtue of the purity and strength of his faith, more benefit than Ibn Sina.
The Qur’an provides such a penetrating insight through its guidance that the whole of the universe with all its aspects, like the pages of a book, can be seen and comprehended by means of it. Like a watch-maker who opens the watch in his hand and describes it down to the smallest part, the Qur’an expounds the universe with all its spheres and particles. Above all, it is such a glorious Qur’an that it announces, There is no deity but God, and declares the Oneness of God.
O God, make the Qur’an our companion in the world and our confident in the grave; our intercessor in the Hereafter and our light on the Bridge of Sirat; a veil and protection against Hellfire, a friend in Paradise, and a guide and a leader to all goodness. O God, illumine our hearts and graves with the light of faith and the Qur’an, and brighten the evidence of the Qur’an for the sake of him whom You sent down the Qur’an, upon him and his family be peace and blessings from the Compassionate and Solicitous One. Amen.

In order To know Prophet Muhammad (SAWS):

Source:

http://www.islamanswers.net/Prophet/Prophet.htm

So :) here is all about our Prophet Muhammad (SAWS)

Islam: Prophet Muhammed (SAWS)

Muḥammad (Arabic: محمد Muḥammad , or sometimes Muhammad ibn Abdullah and also transliterated as Muhammed, Mohammad or Mohammed) (ca. 26 April 570 – 8 June 632).
(Monday, 12th Rabi' al-Awwal, Year 11 A.H.), was the founderof the religion of Islam, and is considered by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God, the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets, and, by most Muslims,the last prophet of God as taught by the Quran.
Muslims thus consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith (islām) of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets.He was also active as a social reformer, diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, military leader, humanitarian, philanthropist, and, according to Muslim belief, an agent of divine action.

Born in 570 in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic beliefs it was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām) is the only way (dīn) acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets.

Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes; he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his remaining followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to 10,000, conquered Mecca. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam, and he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.

The revelations (or Ayah, lit. "Signs of God")–which Muhammad reported receiving until his death–form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Qur'an, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld by Muslims. They discuss Muhammad and other prophets of Islam with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever their names are mentioned.While conceptions of Muhammad in medieval Christendom and premodern times were largely negative, appraisals in modern history have been far less so.His life and deeds have been debated and criticized by followers and opponents over the centuries.

I hope this helped to let u see the right wa الصحيح path wa al Serat Al mostaqeem :D insha'Allah

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Persia

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